ANCIENT GREECE(ANCIENT GREECE) Ms. Blackburn A. L. Brown High School
Where is Greece? • Sunny Greece is 1,500 miles from England. • It’s capital city is Athens • Little farmland/natural resources • Water used for transportation/trade
Ancient Greece • In Ancient Greece, the different cities were at war with each other. • The most fearsome fighters came from the town of Sparta.
The Trojan War
Dorians • 1100B.C – 900B.C. • Conquered the Mycenaean's • Less advanced, no writing • Information passed on orally • Homer • famous blind storyteller of • Epics • poems that tell a story • Told the Iliad and the Odyssey
Ancient Greece Section 2: The Rise of Greek City-States
Greek Civics and Politics • Civic and personal honor is one and the same • The Polis(city-state) is above everything else Greenblatt, Lemmo. Human Heritage. Glencoe, McGraw-Hill 1995.
The Polis (city-state) • Made up of a major city or town and its surrounding countryside • 2 levels: • the acropolis- or high city, great marble temples dedicated to different gods and goddesses • the agora- or main city, walled, marketplace, theater, public buildings, and homes. Below.
Types of Governments • Monarchy • ruled by a king/queen, rule stays in the family (hereditary) • Aristocracy • ruled by the small group of rich/wealthy citizens (also hereditary) • Oligarchy • ruled by a small group of powerful, military people
Greek Military ↓ CATAPULT ↓ ↓ Flamethrower!!!!! ↓ ←This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier. ← Hoplites were middle-class freemen who had to pay for their own weapon and shield.
New Warfare Methods Shape Greece • Iron weapons replaced bronze ones • Because Iron = cheaper than bronze….ordinary citizens could afford iron helmets, shields, and swords ← This is a phalanx. ← Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a large shield and a 9 foot long spear.
Technology results from necessity • Since Greek coastal cities were sandwiched between the ocean and the sea, they developed an awesome navy for trading and fighting.
Technology results from scarcity • All cities need fresh water. This is a Greek aqueduct, basically a brick water pipe. • The first aqueduct was Assyrian, but most ancient societies had them.
Changes in Military Technology Caused…. • Increased power of the middle class • Strong sense of unity among citizen-soldiers • Reduced class differences • VERY different ways of life to develop in Athens and Sparta
Sparta • Spartan society was obsessed with war. • Boys were sent to military school at a young age (as young as 7!). • Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides • Did not care about trade, wealth, individual rights or the arts • Military and serving Sparta = most important thing
Athens first ruled by tyrants rulers who take power by force became a democracy type of government where people vote Limited to wealthy and citizens only (slaves, women, foreigners not citizens) Men allowed to be educated/think freely unlike Sparta
Athens was the first democracy. • Democracy • type of government where people vote. • Eventually Athens became a direct democracy • where people vote on everything. • The U.S. today is a representative democracy • where we vote for people to make decisions for us.
Remember! If you think the U.S. is so much better. . . • Some southern states did not let African Americans vote until the 1960s (Voting Rights Act 1965) • Women could not vote in the U.S. until 1920 (19th Amendment) • Eighteen year olds could not vote until the late 1970s.
Ancient Greece Section 3: Conflict in the Greek World
Persian Wars • Persians enter Greece from east • Led by Darius and his son Xerxes • Greeks see any non-Greek as barbarians (uncivilized people) and want them out • Athens attacked first, soon get help from other city-states including Sparta • Greeks win using Athens’ navy and Sparta’s army • Form the DelianLeague- 140 city-states cooperating and defending each other (led by Athens)
Persian Wars: Famous Battles • Marathon (490 BCE) • 26 miles from Athens; Hand-to-hand combat • Thermopylae (480 BCE) • 300 Spartans fight @ mountain pass • Salamis (480 BCE) • Athenian navy victorious
ThermopylaeLeonidas and 300 Spartans fight to the death defending the pass! The movie “300” depicts this battle…although it is more Hollywood than pure facts!
The Golden Age of Athens • After the Persian Wars • Period of great wealth and culture (Led by Pericles) • Developed Direct Democracy • Strengthened Athens (built a 200 ship navy) • Glorified Athens (new buildings of gold, marble, ivory)
Peloponnesian War • Between Athens and Sparta (Spartans resented/jealous of Athens) • Sparta had superior army, Athens had a better navy • Sparta attacked on land and eventually defeated Athens • Helped by the Persians and a plague (sickness) in Athens
Ancient Greece Section 4: Greek Glory
Socrates Plato Aristotle The Great Greek Philosophers http://www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/PHIL/cpshelle/Gallery/Greek/aristotle.jpg
Great Athenian Philosophers • Socrates • Know thyself! • question everything • only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness. • Plato • The Academy • The world of the FORMS • The Republic philosopher-king
Greek Theater • Began during festivals honoring the god Dionysus (600 BCE) • Types of Plays • Tragedies • -serious, had a moral • Comedies • -made fun of people/society • Only men could act in plays • A civic responsibility http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~tjmoore/mythslides1/28feastofgods.jpg
Greek Architecture • Classical • Everything is balanced and in order • Used columns • Tried to show everything in its perfect form
The Acropolis Today Phidias’ Acropolis
Ancient Greece Section 5: Alexander The Great and Hellenistic Culture
Alexander the Great • Alexander was not from Athens, but Macedonia. • Alexander was a brilliant military strategist. • His favorite book was Homer’s Iliad
Alexander conquered the Persian empire and controlled the largest empire the world has ever seen.
Alexander spread Hellenistic culture throughout Asia. • Hellenistic is a fancy word for Greek. • Alexander spread Greek technology and ideas throughout his empire • Helenistic culture– mixing of Greek, Egyptian and Asian customs