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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece

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Ancient Greece

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  1. Ancient Greece

  2. The Geography of Greece • near anc. civs. of the MidEast/Egypt. • access to Black Sea grain.

  3. mountainous • mtns. block contact • not unified, dev. sep. city-states = polis • a “Civilization” not an “Empire”

  4. coastal • never > 50 miles from sea. • turn to sea for trade/transport

  5. Periods of Ancient Greek History • Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE)

  6. Minoan Civilization • centered on Crete • well-built advanced cities and palaces • not walled, maze-like entry to access central courtyard, plumbing, etc. • Do Greek myths tell us more about the Minoans? • named for King Minos/the Minotaur legend, why? • Allegory for their conquest by mainland Greeks? • the legend of Atlantis? • weakened by explosion of Thera (1628 BCE) • overtaken by Mycenaeans by 1400 BCE

  7. Crete: Minoan Civilization(Palace at Knossos = inspiration for “the Labyrinth”?)

  8. Crete: Horns of Consecration(Bull Worshipping)

  9. Minoan Civilization: Bull-leaping

  10. Legend of the Minotaur,simple myth or historical allegory?

  11. Periods of Ancient Greek History • Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE) • Mycenaean (1400 – 1200 BCE)

  12. The Mycenaean Civilization • Centered in Southern Greece

  13. The Mycenaean Civilization • Classical Greeks look back (thru Homer) to this time as an “ideal” • “heroic age” • Setting for the Trojan War (ca. 1250 BCE) • Agamemnon, Achilles, etc. • Greek gods • What does it mean to be a hero?

  14. The Trojan War (The Iliad and the Odyssey)

  15. The Mask of Agamemnon

  16. Periods of Ancient Greek History • Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE) • Mycenaean (1400 – 1200 BCE) • Dark Ages (1200 – 750 BCE)

  17. Dark Ages • Why did the Dark Ages happen? • Dorian Invasions? Sea Peoples? • Organized society collapses • small isolated villages • population decline • writing vanishes • lack of historical records • When writing returns we see a disappearance of Mycenaean Linear b and shift to an alphabet adopted from … • Phoenicians • They come back later on (Carthage)

  18. Homer • Blind poet is the “bridge” from heroic past to classical Greece. • Epic (oral) poems pass down heroic traditions and values • The Iliad, The Odyssey • War-like, heroic values • external, shame-based values vs. western internal guilt-based • arete • striving for excellence • Leads to great achievements • leads to constant competition • Individual = Olympics • City-states = constant warfare • Rule by the excellent • “aristocracy”

  19. Classical Greece (city-state period) 750 BCE - 324 BCE

  20. Periods of Ancient Greek History • Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE) • Mycenaean (1400 – 1200 BCE) • Dark Ages (1200 – 750 BCE) • City-State/Classic Period (750 – 324 BCE)

  21. Rise of City-StatesHow to deal with problems?1) social organization2) protection of polis. Athens Sparta Ruled by small group (oligarchy) enslave helots Society org. like army no luxuries = “spartan” Land power • Gradually becomes a “democracy” • Expand franchise to include protectors of the polis • dynamic society (art, culture, science, etc.) • Naval power unite to defeat superpower Persians!

  22. Persian Wars: 499 BCE – 480 BCE Underdog Greeks unite to defeat global superpower of the day

  23. Persian Wars: 499 BCE – 480 BCE • Marathon (490 BCE) • Philippides runs 26 miles from Athens to announce victory (then dies) • Proves the Persians could be defeated • Thermopylae (480 BCE) • “300” Spartans stall Persians at mountain pass until they are betrayed • Athens has time to evacuate but is burned • Salamis (480 BCE) • Athenian navy wins by luring Persian navy into narrow waters! • Persia out of Europe forever

  24. Battle of Marathon (Philippides arrives with news of Athenian victory)

  25. Battle of Thermopylae (300 Spartans hold off Persian invaders)

  26. Battle of Salamis (Persians lured into small area which offsets their advantages)

  27. SPARTA

  28. SPARTA

  29. SPARTA

  30. Athens: Golden “Age of Pericles”:460 BCE – 429 BCE

  31. Phidias’ Acropolis

  32. The Parthenon

  33. The Acropolis Today

  34. The Parthenon

  35. Peloponnesian War • Athens vs. Sparta • Lasts 30 years • Shift from individual quest for arete to polis competing to prove arete • Sparta wins!!!!! • weakens Greek world • Greece conquered by Philip of Macedonia (Alexander the Great’s father)

  36. Great Athenian Philosophers • Socrates • “Know thyself!” & question all • Trial of Socrates • Used as a scapegoat for Athenian loss in Peloponnesian War • “corrupting youth” with new ideas • Plato • The Academy • The Republic philosopher-king • Aristotle • Logic & Scientific method.

  37. Athens: The Arts & Sciences • DRAMA • Tragedy (man brought down by hubris, trying to change his fate) • Aeschylus • Sophocles (Oedipus Rex, Antigone) • Comedy (make fun of leaders) • Aristophanes • Euripides • THE SCIENCES: • Pythagoras  a2 + b2 = c2 • Democritus  matter = atoms. • Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”

  38. Periods of Ancient Greek History • Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE) • Mycenaean (1400 – 1200 BCE) • Dark Ages (1200 – 750 BCE) • City-State/Classic Period (750 – 324 BCE) • Hellenistic (324 – 146 BCE?)

  39. "Hellenistic" Age: 324 BCE - 147 BCE

  40. Alexander the Great

  41. Alexander the Great’s Empire

  42. Alexander the Great in Persia

  43. The Hellenization of Asia

  44. “Hellenistic” = Greek-like • Alexander d. 323 bc • Alcohol poisoning? • Legacy • Merging of Greek and Eastern cultures • Hellenism • CULTURAL DIFFUSION • Persia, Egypt, Israel are “hellenized” • Greek rulers = ex. Cleopatra is Greek • Christ = Greek for the “anointed one”

  45. Hellenistic Philosophers • Cynics  Diogenes • ignore social norms avoid luxuries. • simple life • Today “cynics”= distrust others’ motives • Epicureans  Epicurus • avoid pain & seek pleasure. • excess leads to pain • Today = lovers of food and wine. • Stoics  Zeno • natural law/logic • free from passion • Today = “stoic” = emotionless

  46. Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences • Greek science/math spread • Library at Alexandria • Scientists / Mathematicians: • Aristarchus  heliocentric theory. • Euclid  geometry • Archimedes  pulley

  47. Roman becomes Hellenized • In 146 BC Rome conquers Greece • “When Rome conquered Greece, Greece conquered Rome”