Muhammad Proclaims a New Faith - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Muhammad Proclaims a New Faith

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  1. Muhammad Proclaimsa New Faith A brilliant and militant new civilization rises out of the Arabian desert key words

  2. Triumphant return • 630 CE: Muhammad and his “Muslim” followers enter Mecca • after their 8 year exile in Yathrib • aka Medina

  3. Islam Muslim (Moslem) Prophet Quran (Koran) Mecca Medina (Yathrib) Pillars of Islam Hijrah (Hegira) Kaaba (ka’ba, etc.) caliph jihad Greater Lesser Sunni Shi’ite Umayyad Damascus Abbasid Baghdad Sharia Key words

  4. Holy city • Right: Mecca • as it would have appeared around the time of his birth (below)

  5. Mecca (cont.) • Note the ka’aba in the background • at the center of the city

  6. First marriage • c. 595 • Khadijah

  7. Divine intervention • c. 610 • Muhammad and the angel Gabriel

  8. The Hegira • Flight to Yathrib • 16 July 622 (Year One) • Note that Muhammad’s head is covered….

  9. The first Muslims • Early followers of the Prophet pondering his words at Yathrib • aka Medina • Muhammad gave daily recitations of the messages he believed came from Allah • which his followers faithfully recorded

  10. The Book of Books • The Qur’an • 114 chapters (suras)

  11. An intense monotheism • Right: the Koranic script representing the one God • “There is one God, and Muhammad is his prophet.”

  12. Daily prayer • Islam’s “Second Pillar”

  13. Military leader • The Muslim army is here seen advancing toward battle with the Meccans at Badr (624) • Other battles • Mount Uhud • Battle of the Ditch

  14. Jihad • A very powerful concept

  15. Return to Mecca • What policies did Muhammad adopt that allowed him to gain the general support of the people of the city? • including the leading merchant families

  16. Dome of the Rock • Muhammad is believed to have risen to heaven from this spot

  17. Successors • Muhammad and the “rightly guided caliphs” • Abu Bakr • Umar (Omar) • Uthman • Ali • Sunni and Shi’ite

  18. Muhammad’s Arabia

  19. The Islamic Empire