Essential Question: • What factors led to the outbreak of the Civil War? • Warm-Up Question: • How did the following events lead to the Civil War in 1861? • States’ Rights Arguments • Slavery • Westward Expansion
The Outbreak of the Civil War • Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, was the first step towards the outbreak of the Civil War • South Carolinians feared the victory of a Republican president would bring an end to slavery & seceded from the United States • By early 1861, 7 Southern states seceded & formed the Confederate States of America
The Upper South did not view Lincoln’s election as a death sentence & did not secede immediately The entire Deep South seceded by Feb 1861
The Confederate States of America • The constitution of the Confederacy: • Protected slavery & states’ rights • Outlawed tariffs • Created a weak national government • Elected Jefferson Davis as president
Lincoln viewed Southern secession as illegal & promised to “preserve the Union”
“My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, andif I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.”—Abraham Lincoln, 1862
Fort Sumter In April 1861, federal soldiers refused Confederate demands to vacate at Fort Sumter in SC The firing on Fort Sumter proved to be the beginning of the Civil War When Lincoln sent aid to soldiers, Confederates fired on the fort
Fort Sumter Not all slave states seceded; Those that stayed in the Union were called “border states” After Fort Sumter, the upper South states seceded & joined the CSA
Class Activity:What were the advantages & disadvantages of the Union & Confederacy during the Civil War?
Northern Advantages • At the outbreak of the Civil War, the North had lots of advantages: • Larger population for troops • Greater industrial capacity • Huge edge in RR transportation • Problems for the North: • Had to invade the South to win • Difficult to maintain enthusiasm & support for war over time
Southern Advantages • Although outnumbered & less industrial, South had advantages: • President Davis knew that they did not have to “win” the war; the South only had to drag out the fight & make the North quit • Had the best military leaders • England & France appeared morewillingtosupporttheSouth “King Cotton” diplomacy Robert E“Stonewall”J.E.B. LeeJackson Stuart
Turning Advantages into Strategy • Based upon the advantages of both the Union & Confederacy: • What should each side’s war strategy be? • How can each side maximize their strengths & minimize their weaknesses in order to win?