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The Health Belief Model

The Health Belief Model

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The Health Belief Model

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  1. The Health Belief Model Factors Influencing Patient Compliance

  2. Introduction • Half of medical advice is not taken up. • £100 million of prescribed medication is discarded every year, at least. • Compliance with screening or preventative programmes is essential for their effectiveness.

  3. Health Belief Model • Health Motivation. • Perceived vulnerability. • Perceived costs and benefits. • Perceived Seriousness.

  4. Health Motivation • The individual’s general interest in health matters, which may correlate with personality, social class, ethic group, religion etc etc.

  5. Perceived Vulnerability • How vulnerable or threatened a patient feels him / herself to be to a particular disease.

  6. Perceived Costs and Benefits • The individual’s estimation of the benefits of treatment weighed against cost, risks and inconvenience.

  7. Perceived Seriousness • Trigger factors such as alarming symptoms, advice from family or friends, messages from the media, disruption of work or play.

  8. Health Beliefs About Illness or Symptoms • Difficult to elicit. • Patients frightened of looking foolish or ignorant. • Patients may be reluctant to “waste a doctors time” with personal attitudes.

  9. Health Beliefs About Illness or Symptoms • Avoid direct questions e.g. “What do you think will happen if you don’t get your blood pressure checked?” • Indirect questions helpful: • “What is going through your mind?” • “What does your wife / husband think?” • Etc etc.

  10. Checklist • Elicit patient’s health beliefs. • Reinforce positive attitudes to health. • i.e. praise for giving up smoking for a period in the past, don’t dwell on the fact they re-started.

  11. Checklist • Counter myths and negative attitudes. • Inform patient about causes and prognosis.

  12. Checklist • Plan an appropriate course of action to suit his/her needs and lifestyle. • Don’t ask them to give up cigarettes, alcohol and sexual promiscuity all at once !