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    1. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Aging and the Elderly

    2. Sociology, Eleventh Edition

    3. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Aging Population Increase Birth rate: going down Decreased infant mortality Children are a major expense Advances in birth control Life expectancy: going up Improved housing, nutrition and increased wealth Medical advances Almost eliminated infectious diseases Treat cancer and heart disease

    4. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Sociological Impact Cultural change Elderly more visible Young-old and old-old Younger elderly 65-75 Independent with good health and financial security Older elderly past age 75 Dependent on others Over age 85 fastest growing segment Women outnumber men

    5. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Biological Changes Gerontology Study of aging and the elderly Attitude toward aging depends on societal values In America, a dim view of such changes is taken Physical changes Predictable graying of hair, wrinkles, loss of height and weight, decline in strength and vitality and sensory changes Odds of chronic illnesses and life-threatening conditions rise steadily Reality we overestimate physical problems A majority of those over 65 report good health Well-to-do people have it better since they can afford preventive care

    6. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Psychological Changes Advancing age does not mean certain impairment of mental abilities Some research reports increases in math and verbal skills Personality changes The elderly can become more introspective More self-awareness Major shifts in personalities do not normally take place

    7. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Aging and Culture The significance of growing old varies according to culture Age stratification Unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege among people at different stages of the life course Hunting and gathering societies Pastoral, horticultural and agrarian societies Industrial and postindustrial societies

    8. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Transitions and Challenges of Aging Finding meaning Social isolation Retirement Aging and poverty Care giving Ageism The elderly: a minority?

    9. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Finding Meaning Erikson: resolve a tension of integrity vs. despair Neugarten studied people in their 70s Personality type Disintegrated and disorganized Passive-dependent Defended Integrated Successful aging lies in maintaining dignity and self-confidence and accepting advancing age

    10. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Social Isolation Isolation is common among elderly Retirement, limited mobility, and negative stereotypes close off sources of social interaction Death of significant others Three-fourths of widows and widowers cite loneliness as serious problem Older people value independence Family members are major source of social support Daughters more than sons

    11. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Retirement Work is an important part of personal identity To minimize loss of prestige New activities and interests Volunteer work can fill time voids Part-time work can offer additional monies Retirement is a recent idea in industrialized societies occurring within the last century When or whether we retire While not mandatory, 83% of men and 91% of women are no longer in the labor force at age 65 in the united states

    12. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Poverty Home mortgage is usually paid off, some costs rise for the elderly Medical care, household help and utilities Social security is the major source of income Those elderly who fall below the poverty line at age 65 equals 9.8% of U.S. Population Median individual income for women is $11,789 and men $20,527

    13. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Care Giving Informal and unpaid care provided to a dependent person by family members, other relatives, or friends 80% of caregivers are family members, daughters make up 75% Married, with children and a job Elder abuse

    14. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Elder Abuse From passive neglect to active torment In many forms: verbal, emotional, financial and physical More than one million a year, severe abuse Major causes Sandwich generation stress Caregiver works fulltime, cares for young children and is poor Caregiver feels little affection for elder, finds them difficult and has little support from others

    15. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Ageism Prejudice and discrimination against the elderly Blatant ageism Deny people due to age Subtle ageism Ways which culture perpetuates stereotypes of the elderly Negative images and jokes Should the elderly be given minority group status?

    16. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Theoretical Perspective Structural-functionalism Disengagement theory Society enhances its orderly operation by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age Symbolic interaction Activity theory A high level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age Social conflict Inequality based on age categories Different opportunities and access to social resources, creating a system of age stratification

    17. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Death and Dying Historical patterns of death Modern separation of life and death Ethical issues: confronting death Death occurs when an irreversible state takes place Right to die debate Living wills Euthanasia

    18. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Stages of Death 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Negotiation 4. Resignation 5. Acceptance

    19. Sociology, Eleventh Edition Bereavement Time of profound grief and social disorientation that persist for some time Experts agree that how a family and friends view an impending death affects the person who is dying Hospice movement Bereavement is less intense for someone who accepts the death of the loved one and their relationship has reached a satisfactory resolution

    20. Sociology, Eleventh Edition The Future Increasing numbers By 2050, more elderly than people in the U.S.A. In 1900 Need to review support services for the elderly Availability and sufficiency The elderly should experience a better quality of life Medical technology Financial strength Changes in how death is viewed Death will again become a natural part of the life cycle no longer social taboo