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Planning and implementation of ecological sanitation projects

Planning and implementation of ecological sanitation projects

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Planning and implementation of ecological sanitation projects

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  1. Planning and implementation of ecological sanitation projects Christine Werner, Florian Klingel, Heinz-Peter Mang,Patrick Bracken, Arne Panesar Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure • 5th International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse for Sustaniability, IWA 8. - 11. November 2005 in Jeju, Korea IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  2. Introduction content of the presentation • what is ecosan? • wastewater = water and more • benefits of ecosan • range of technologies and basic project types • holistic sanitation and reuse planning and implementation • HCES and Bellagio principles • stakeholder participation • 10 step ecosan project planning and implementation process • some ecosan pilot projects • challenges and conclusion IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  3. Introduction to ecosan shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation fertilizer production from finite resources food overexploitation of groundwater Mixing of flowstreams, misuse of drinking water for transport waste disposal in water bodies sewage sludge 90% untreated IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  4. shortcomings of conventional „drop and store“ sanitation Retention of solids Infiltration of liquids Pathogens Nitrates Polluted groundwater Viruses Introduction to ecosan IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  5. principles of ecosan FOOD FOOD closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture NUTRIENTS NUTRIENTS Pathogen destruction Introduction to ecosan IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  6. Introduction to ecosan closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture rainwater harvesting restoring soil fertility food agricultural use manure/organicwaste greywater faeces urine treatment / hygienization /energy production water reuse no waste disposal in water bodies IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  7. Introduction to ecosan advantages of ecological sanitation • Improvement of health by minimizing the introduction of pathogens from human excrements into the water cycle • Promotion of safe, hygienic recovery and use of nutrients, organics, trace elements, water and energy • Preservation of soil fertility, Improvement of agricultural productivity • Conservation of resources • Preference for modular, decentralised partial-flow systems for more appropriate, cost-efficient solutions • Promotion of a holistic, interdisciplinary approach • Material flow cycle instead of disposal IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  8. Introduction to ecosan ecosan principles Ecological sanitation… • … is not a specific technology, but a new philosophy - based on an eco-system-oriented view of material flows - of dealing with what is presently regarded as waste and wastewater for disposal • …considers human excreta and wastewater not as wastes but as natural resources • … applies the basic natural principal of closing the loop by using modern and safe sanitation and reuse technologies • … opens up a wider range of sanitation options than those currently considered. IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  9. 14.1 12.3 5.3 3.6 K Organics kg COD/ (Person·year) P N 1.0 0.8 Nutrient content kg N,P,K / (Person·year) Introduction to ecosan composition of household wastewater 10.000 – 200.000 l 50 l 500 l source: Otterpohl Volume Liter / (Person·year) IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  10. urine (yellowwater) greywater (shower, washing, etc.) rainwater organic waste manure faeces (brownwater) hygienisation by storage or drying constructedwetlands, gardening, wastewater ponds, biol.treatment, membrane-technology filtration, biological treatment composting, anaerobic digestion anaerobic digestion, drying, composting liquid or dry fertiliser water supply, groundwater- recharge soil improvement, biogas biogas, soil improvement irrigation, groundwater- recharge or direct reuse Introduction to ecosan separation of substances substances treatment utilisation IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  11. million tons per year (as N + P2O5 + K2O) 135 www.fertilizer.org 50 excreta are a valuable resource • more than 1/3 of global mineral fertilizer consumption can be covered by the reuse of human excreta • over 15 billion US$ fertilizer equivalent are annually flushed down the toilet IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  12. benefits of ecological sanitation • safe sanitation • healthy environment souce: www.virtualmuseum.ca source: Johannes Heeb ecosan-toilets in Bangalore, India IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  13. benefits of ecological sanitation • improved soil quality through reuse of organics • restored soil fertility through nutrient reuse none faeces & urine urine source: Petter Jenssen compost improved soil source: Vinnerås, 2003 untreated soil after one week without water IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  14. benefits of ecological sanitation source: Petter Jenssen • recovery of energy content (covering about 20% of cooking energy needs for a typical family in a developing country) • energy savings in fertilizer production & wastewater treatment • reuse of water IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  15. Introduction to ecosan centralised and decentralized systems Centralized Partially decentralized Fully decentralized source: Larsen, 2001 • centralized sewer system and treatment • recovery of nutrients and water e.g. through reuse of wastewater • small-scale closed cycles of water and materials • e.g. separate collection of urine or blackwater • centralized nutrient processing facility • centralized greywater sewer system and treatment IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  16. ecosan technologies overview of ecosan technology-components IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  17. ecosan pilot projects basic types of ecosan projects IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  18. ecosan project planning new aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of ecosan projects • the integration of other relevant sectors in the assessment of the current situation and in all the planning activities and conceptual work: agriculture sector (reuse), water supply, urban planning, solid waste management • the consideration of a much wider variety of sanitation solutions (technical, institutional, financial) • the necessity to focus on the assessment of the needs of the users of the sanitary facilities,service providers and the end users of the recyclates. • supply of relevant information to enable the stakeholder to make an “informed choice” • the consideration of smaller planning units and a greater number of decentralised options IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  19. Resource conservation Climate protection Business and labour promotion Flood protection Food security ecosan Integrated Water Resources Management Sustainable agriculture Health + Conservation of soil fertility Introduction to ecosan ecosan is a cross-sectoral approach IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  20. Tourists, students, employees, etc. (peri )urban household household in an urban flat Rural household ( I ) Users of Sanitation facilities ( II ) User of recyclates ( IX ) Research Institutions  ( III ) CBOs and self-help groups ( VIII ) Financial Institutions ecosan project ( IV ) NGOs ( VII ) Developers & Investors ( VI ) Service providers ( V ) Local authorities, governments Supplier of watergas and electricity Providers for collection treatment and transport Consultantcompanies Construction companies maintenance companies Distributors and marketers of recyclates Producers/ provider of equipment Educationalinstitutions Stakeholders in an ecosan project IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  21. ecosan project planning The HCES approach (WSSCC) • Participation of stakeholders • Level of problem solving • Regarding excreta and wastewater as ressources HCES = Household (neighborhood) centered environmental sanitation WSSCC = Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  22. ecosan project planning 10 ecosan project steps • GTZ proposes a 10 step approach to assure interdisciplinary and participatory planning in ecosan projects, based on the HCES-implementation guideline of the WSSCC • Within an enlarged start-up phase, the 10 steps complement classical planning instruments (feasibility study, technical design, etc.) 10 ecosan project steps Step 0 – Raising awareness Step 1 - Request for assistance Step 2 - Launch of planning & consultation process Step 3 - Assessment of current status and stakeholders Step 4 - Assessment of priorities, user and reuser needs Step 5 - Identification of sanitation and reuse options Step 6 - Evaluate feasible service and reuse options Step 7 - Consolidate ecosan plans for the study area Step 8 - Finalise consolidated ecosan plans for study area Step 9 – Implementation Start-up phase Awareness raising Feasibility- Study Detailed technical & operational plans Tendering, con- struction, ope- ration, maintenance IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  23. ecosan project planning 10 ecosan project steps (0-5) IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  24. ecosan project planning 10 ecosan project steps (6-9) IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  25. ecosan pilot projects Arborloo: a simple pit latrine for ecological sanitation practices Low cost Arborloo in Mondoro Village, Zimbabwe Arborloo principle Arborloo construction work Arborloo in Mondoro IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  26. ecosan pilot projects ecosan dry toilet promotion in Guangxi-Province, China (supported by SIDA and Unicef) • Large ecosan project in the phase of up-scaling • 1997, pilot project funded by SIDA/Unicef, 70 ecosan (urine diverting dehydration toilets) built in pilot village, Dalu Village • 1998, 10.000 urine-diverting toilets were built in 200 ecosan villages in Guangxi • 2002, 100.000 ecosan toilets in Guangxi • 2003, 685.000 ecosan toilets in 17 provinces (Ministry of Public Health) • Factors of success: cultural acceptance, political commitment, technical flexibility, low cost, income generation, pressure from water pollution and water scarcity, promotion and marketing Photos: Sandec, Text: Mi Hua IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  27. ecosan pilot projects KfW building, Germany ecosan concept since 2003: • Greywater recycling • Rainwater harvesting • Vacuum blackwater collection, eventually to be followed by anaerobic treatment IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  28. ecosan pilot projects GTZ main office building renovations, Germany Urine separation and collection Research on: • acceptance and technical function of urine separation • different treatment options and agricultural use of urine • biomembrane treatment and hygienisation of brownwater GTZ headquarter Eschborn, Germany Urine diversion toilets and waterless urinals IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  29. main challenges • increasing awareness • integration of reuse into planning • revision of legal frameworks & technical standards • establishment of compara-tive full cost, benefit and risk assessments • finding innovative investors and adapting financing instruments • implementation of large scale urban projects source: Petter Jenssen Greywater treatment in Norway IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005

  30. conclusion • “business as usual“ will not allow us to meet the sanitation MGDs, as conventional systems have failed • we cannot continue to waste our non-renewable resources • ecological sanitation - comprising the reuse of water, nutrients, organics and energy - must be recognized and introduced as the new promising holistic and sustainable approach to provide safe and decent sanitation, reduce poverty, contribute to food security, preserve our environment and maintain our natural basis of life on earth IWA-5th WRRS, Jeju, Korea, 8. - 11. November 2005