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Ecological and environmental planning

Ecological and environmental planning

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Ecological and environmental planning

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  1. Ecological and environmental planning Visiting Professor Department of Human Ecology Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium Laarbeeklaan 103 B-1090 – Brussels, BELGIUM Tel.: +32-2-477.42.81 Fax: +32-2-477.49.64 E-mail: eboon@vub.ac.be http://meko.vub.ac.be/~gronsse/ Emmanuel K. Boon School of Administration University of Ghana Legon-Accra Ghana

  2. Content • Definition and importance of planning • Why environmental planning • Characteristics of environmental planning • Obstacles to environmental planning • Steps in planning • Environmental decision making • Approaches to planning • The role of national governments in planning • Strategic environmental planning • Education and training • Participation • Coordination/ cooperation • Evaluation/ monitoring • Control • Port environmental planning

  3. Definition and importance • A set of interventions and other actions undertaken during the elaboration of a plan • A methodology for taking the future into account • Provide people with an environment that supports their way of life

  4. Why environmental planning? • Sustainable development • Reducing or eliminating pollution • Restoring environmental management

  5. Characteristics of environmental planning • Linked to socio-economic development • Implemented in an integrated manner at the level of • Local community • Regional • National • International level

  6. Obstacles to environmental planning • Environmental pollution does not respect national boundaries • Many developing countries are disadvantaged • By limited planning and administrative structures • ‘top down’ development planning • Political and oraganisational obstacles • Fragmentation of policy and instructions • Tension between central, regional and local governments • International rivalry (ex socio economic disparity between rich and poor nations)

  7. Steps in planning • Definition of the problem • Establishment of planning objectives • Identification of the assumptions on which planning is to be based • Search for and evaluation of alternative courses of action • Selection of a particular action to be followed

  8. Environmental planning • Planners need to translate the concerns of the community into strategies and policies • Growing concern for the quality of the environment and for the preservation and conservation of the nature • The planning process should give equal emphasis to both socio economic development and environmental quality • Integration of environmental health aspects

  9. Environmental decision making • Behavioural and cultural dimensions • Nation specific - region specific • Communication and understanding by all the relevant actors and stakeholders

  10. Approaches to planning • Substantive planning • Subject matter of planning • Object of planning • Procedural planning • Promoting economic growth • Inter related steps Identification of needs Specification of goals and objectives Development of alternative means to attain each goal Estimation of the costs of each alternative • Selection of the most promising alternative(s)

  11. Integration of substantive and procedural planning • Role of the state as an agent of change • Analysis based on class, gender, political ideology

  12. 4 approaches to formal planning • Top-down • Bottom-up • Mixture of Top-down and Bottom-up • Team approach

  13. 2 environmental planning approaches • Institutional approach • Used in the social planning process • Remedial measures: legislation, regulation, taxes and charges • Commercial approach • Used in the business sector • Remedial measures: non-regulatory initiatives for improving existing treatment process, developing new environmental friendly processes and products, waste minimization programmes, improving the logistics of transportation, storage and sale of products

  14. Role of national governments in environmental planning • National governments must: • Establish priorities for environmental protection • Calculate and create the trade offs to be made between environmental protection and other national goals • Plan resource use and protection over several generations • The planning process should give equal emphasis to both national socio-economic development and environmental quality

  15. 3 features for environmental planning • Multi disciplinary nature of planning • Economic, social, ecological, land use and technical considerations • Public involvement • Systematic approach of the process • Setting of objectives through the implementation of remedial programmes • Assessment of results • Permanent feed-back

  16. The following must be considered during the planning process • Environmental effect-oriented issues focus on the minimization of ecological threats • Technologically-oriented issues Focus on access of all counties to BAT • Economically-oriented issues focus on potential financial consequences

  17. ACTION during planning • A: anticipate the participation/involvement of all stakeholders as well as environmental, technical end economic consequences • C: Conclude the most plausible economic and environmental development • T: Tabulate the possible advantages and disadvantages of all possible decisions • I: Initiate evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of alternative decisions • O: Omit all less useful alternatives and highlight the proffered ones • N: Negotiate with all relevant parties for acceptance of the preferred action

  18. Strategic environmental planning • = Estimating the degree of risk of policies and actions • Essential features: • Future impact of current decisions and actions • Cause-effect relationships of decisions over time • Alternative courses of action and their influece on the current decision • Future opportunities and threats + other relevant data

  19. Strategic environmental planning process • Setting objectives • Definition of strategies and policies • Development of a detailed plan • Continuing process of deciding in advance • What is to be done • When • How • Who is going to do it

  20. Strategic management

  21. Environmental education and training

  22. Participation in environmental planning • Involve public participation at all levels • Individual • Community • Global • Panning = teamwork

  23. Cooperation/ coordination • Planning process involves several agencies • Complex interrelationships between agencies • Cultural diversity Policies, plans and programmes need coordination Cooperation has to be guaranteed through • Video and tele-conferencing • Information networks

  24. Evaluation, monitoring and control • Evaluation • Phase 1: Definition and estimation of various impacts • Phase 2: Integrate impacts in an overall view-> judgment • Monitoring • Performance monitoring: control use of inputs and production of outputs • Process monitoring: evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of the plan • Impact evaluation: estimate quantitative effects on socio-economic conditions of the target population • Cost benefit analysis: compare alternative projects

  25. Port planning • Economic plan • Tourism plan • Industry plan • Service plan • Environmental plan • All plans impact on one another, conflict with one another • A planning framework within the public which public bodies, the private sector and individuals can all operate

  26. Port planning at micro level • Setting port objectives • Establishing policies, procedures, programmes for their realization • Determining what needs to be done, by whom and when

  27. Port planning at micro level • Agreement on purpose • Assignment and acceptance of individual responsibilities • Coordination of activities • Increased communication on group goals • Lateral communication

  28. Environmental planning in portsexperience from Ghana • Aim of environmental planning: combating marine pollution and pollution of the coastal environment • Tanker operations TOR provides material for mopping oil • Oil reception facilities Reception facilities for oily waste are needed • Collisions Agreement with neighboring countries for the protection of the coast (Abidjan Convention) • Vessel operations Environmental plans are needed for sinking vessels

  29. Environmental planning in portsexperience from Ghana (2) • Oil spill emergency response plan National oil spill response plan • Regulations on pollution Vessel pollution prevention law • Port state control Inspection of ships cargo record books and documentation • Land based pollution Type of chemicals and their toxity has to be known • Port administration Plans to minimize paper waste

  30. Environmental planning in portsexperience from Ghana (3) • Plant maintenance and repair workshop -> grease and engine oil • Civil engineering workshop -> dust and gas • Electrical and marine workshop -> gas, dust and solid waste • Fish market and surrounding area -> waste from ships and other food items • Industry -> industrial waste

  31. Recommendations • Public awareness Education for staff and customers • National maritime legislation Merchant shipping act • Port environmental policy and management Development of an environmental management plan • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) EPA request companies to conduct EIA • Reception facilities • A treatment plant must be considered

  32. Conclusion • There is a crucial need for: • integrating environment into development planning • environmental education and training • participation of key actors and public in planning • harmonization policies and plans at all levels • evaluation, monitoring and control