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Aircraft Strategy &Tactics

Aircraft Strategy &Tactics

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Aircraft Strategy &Tactics

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  1. Terminology Parts of Fire Basic Tactics Drop Patterns Example Review Ten Principles of Retardant Application Aircraft Strategy &Tactics By Steve Hubbard

  2. “SEE” WHAT YOU CAN DO! • “SEE” = • Safe (Always assure safety before any other goal) • Effective (….actually putting the fire out is nice….but safety first) • Efficient (….only if Safe & Effective)

  3. STRATEGY • Mental process for establishing incident objectives and priorities. • What do you want to save…and how bad?

  4. TACTICS • A series of tasks or operations done to achieve an objective. • How are you actually going to do the job?

  5. FINGER HEEL(ORIGIN) ANCHOR POINT Parts of a Fire BOTTOM LINE: This is how the fire fighters describe things. HEAD LEFT SHOULDER RIGHT SHOULDER SPOT FIRE ISLAND POCKET LEFT FLANK RIGHT FLANK ROAD

  6. “AMOEBA” Fire N E W S For this fire, you may have to resort to Cardinal directions when talking to ground folks.

  7. Downhill Fire Firefighters still relate to left and right. ROAD LEFT FLANK RIGHT FLANK DOWNHILL SLOPE Head is still the most active part of fire.

  8. FIRE ATTACK TACTICS • THREE BASIC METHODS • INDIRECT • DIRECT • PARALLEL

  9. INDIRECT ATTACK USUALLY A LARGE-FIRE TACTIC A DISTANCE AWAY RIDGE LINE UTILIZE NATURAL BARRIERS BURN OUT BETWEEN

  10. DIRECT ATTACK WORKING DIRECTLY ON FIRE EDGE “ONE FOOT IN THE BURN – ONE IN THE GREEN”

  11. PARALLEL ATTACK MOVE OFF FIRE EDGE A SHORT DISTANCE TAKE ADVANTAGE OF LIGHT FUELS/BARRIERS MOST DANGEROUS METHOD FOR FIREFIGHTERS STRAIGHTEN RAGGED EDGE FIRE OUT BETWEEN

  12. TACTICS • EVERY FIRE IS DIFFERENT • DIRECT? INDIRECT? • ANCHOR POINT = • WORK FROM IT • HONEST EVALUATION = • COMMUNICATE WITH THE GROUND!

  13. FLANKING TANDEM AHEAD TANDEM BEHIND HOOK NARROW “VEE” WIDE “VEE” ANGLE TIE-IN SPOT FIRE PRE-TREAT ANGLE-OUT COOLING CONVECTION COLUMN SPOT FIELD COVER AIRCRAFT PATTERNS

  14. FLANKING GOOD METHOD = STARTS FROM ANCHOR POINT USED ON FAST RUNNING FIRES CONSERVATIVE

  15. TANDEM AHEAD PROVIDES MOST ASSISTANCE TO GROUND FORCES OFTEN TO SUPPORT DOZERS IN HEAVY BRUSH ANCHOR DONE BY GROUND TROOPS

  16. TANDEM BEHIND ASSIST GROUND FORCES TO HOLD HASTILY DONE LINES PICKS UP SPOTS AND SLOP-OVERS MOST OFTEN USED WHEN HIGH VALUES ARE BEING PROTECTED ANCHOR MADE BY GROUND TROOPS IS RE-ENFORCED

  17. HOOK USED OFF FLANKING PATTERN TO CUT ACROSS HEAD FLANKING CONTROL COULD HAVE BEEN DONE BY GROUND FORCES

  18. NARROW “VEE” QUICKLY CATCH HEAD OF SMALL FIRE AGGRESSIVE METHOD ADDITIONAL DROPS, HOSELAYS, OR LINE CONSTRUCTION MUST BE ASSURED TO FOLLOW SOON! ASK YOURSELF: HOW SOON WILL IT GET ANCHORED?….AND WHO IS GOING TO DO IT?

  19. WIDE “VEE” A LITTLE OUT IN FRONT – “JUST TO SLOW IT DOWN” OFTEN USED SIMILAR TO CREW HOT-SPOTTING = BUYING TIME ANCHOR PROBLEM IS WORSE – BECAUSE YOU EXPECT EVEN A LONGER DELAY BEFORE ANCHORING!

  20. ANGLE TIE-IN FREQUENTLY USED METHOD THAT PROVIDES A DEFENDABLE TIE TO THE ANCHOR POINT PLAN USUALLY WOULD INCLUDE FIRING OUT TO THE BARRIER

  21. SPOT FIRE USUALLY NO PLACE TO ANCHOR OBJECTIVE IS TO HOLD UNTIL GROUND FORCES ARRIVE TRY TO DROP FROM TWO DIRECTIONS FOR BETTER COVERAGE (SHADOWING) PUTTING AN “X” ON IT WORKS WELL ALSO

  22. PRE-TREAT USED TO WIDEN A NATURAL BARRIER PROVIDES BACKFIRE SUPPORT HELPS TO LOWER SPOT FIRE SPREAD POTENTIAL PLACE OUTSIDE OF MAIN LINE AND ON LEE SIDE RIDGE LINE

  23. ANGLE OUT USED WHEN YOU CAN’T GET TO BOTTOM (STAIR-STEP?) TELL GROUND FORCES WHAT YOU DID NOT PERFECT – BUT LEAVES SOMETHING FOR THE FIRE TO BUMP AND HOLD LONGER RIDGE LINE

  24. COOLING CONVECTION TO STOP HAVING TO CHASE SPOT FIRES ALL DAY DROP TIGHT TO BACKSIDE AND ALLOW CONVECTION WIND TO DRAW IT IN GROUND SIDE-VIEW SPOT FIELD HEAD IS MOVING

  25. SPOT FIELD COVER MULTIPLE LINES SPACED NARROWER THAN THE FIRE-RUNNING DISTANCE NEEDED TO BUILD UP SPOTTING HEADS FROM NEW SPOT FIRES (USE NATURAL BARRIERS TOO) REQUIRES LARGE NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT BE QUICKLY COMMITTED AT SAME TIME AND THIS WILL FORCE PLACING LINES A LONG DISTANCE OUT IN FRONT THIS IS A NEW TACTIC PLEASE SHARE ANY STORIES

  26. EXAMPLE WIND COW PATH ROAD

  27. EXAMPLE WIND ON RETURN COW PATH ROAD

  28. 10 PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION From The National Wildfire Coordinating Group

  29. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION1. • DECIDE TACTICS = DIRECT OR INDIRECT? • SIZE-UP • RESOURCES AVAILABLE

  30. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION2. • ESTABLISH ANCHOR POINT • WORK FROM IT

  31. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION3. • USE PROPER DROP HEIGHT • UP/DOWN WIND? • LIGHT/HEAVY GPC?

  32. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION4. • APPLY PROPER COVERAGE LEVELS • EFFECTIVENESS VERSUS WASTE

  33. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION5. • DROP DOWNHILL AND DOWN-SUN WHEN FEASIBLE….BUT: • SAFE EXIT IS KEY = LEVEL RUN OVER RISING TERRAIN INTO WIND MAY BE AS GOOD

  34. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION6. • DROP INTO THE WIND FOR BEST ACCURACY….BUT: • “SEE” = BE SAFE BEFORE TRYING TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE(or EFFICIENT)

  35. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION7. • DO HONEST EVALUATIONS OF AIR ATTACK EFFORTS • TALK TO GROUND WITH SAME HONESTY

  36. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION8. • GO DIRECT ONLY WHEN GROUND SUPPORT IS AVAILABLE • OR WHEN EXTINGUISHMENT IS PROBABLE

  37. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION9. • PLAN DROPS SO THEY CAN BE EXTENDED OR INTERSECTED EFFECTIVELY

  38. PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION10. • MONITOR EFFECTIVENESS AND ADJUST AS NEEDED….OR • SHUT IT DOWN? • SHOW-TIME ANYWAY?

  39. Aircraft Strategy &Tactics • Terminology • Parts of Fire • Basic Tactics • Drop Patterns • Example • Review Ten Principles of Retardant Application