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AIR FRAME PowerPoint Presentation

AIR FRAME

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AIR FRAME

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  1. AIR FRAME

  2. INTRODUCTION • Aircraft :- All types of air supported vehicles are called as aircraft. (OR) It is a man made contrivance (device) which can fly in the air. • Air Frame :- An aircraft without engine is called airframe.

  3. Types Of aircrafts • According to Weight :- • Lighter than air Aircraft :- Ex:- Balloons, Airships. • Heavier than air Aircraft :- Ex:- Gliders, Helicopters, Aeroplane.

  4. According to number of Wings :- • Mono Planes (One wing on each side of the fuselage is fitted). • Bi Planes (Two set of wings fitted on each side of the fuselage).

  5. Mono plane Aircraft :-

  6. Bi – Plane Aircraft :-

  7. According to number of Engines :- Single engine aeroplane Multi engine aeroplane. • According to type of engines :- Propeller driven aeroplane Jet Planes.

  8. Single Engine Aircraft :-

  9. Multi Engine Aircraft :-

  10. Propeller Driven Aircraft :-

  11. Jet Aircrafts :-

  12. According to Speed : • Subsonic (with a speed below that of sound). • Sonic (with a speed equal to that of sound). • Supersonic (with a speed more than that of sound).

  13. Other Classifications :- • Land Planes (which can take-off from and can land on ground). • Sea planes (which can take-off from and can land on sea). • Amphibians (which can take-off from and can land on both ground and sea).

  14. Land Plane:-

  15. Sea Plane :-

  16. Sea Plane :-

  17. Sea Plane :-

  18. Major Structural Components Of A/C Fuselage Main plane / Wings Aileron Flaps Elevators Fin Rudder Air Brakes Under carriage Engine

  19. Aircraft :-

  20. FUSELAGE :- • The fuselage is the main structure or body of the aircraft. • Fuselage provides attachment for the main planes, tail unit and in many cases for engines and under carriage. • It also provides space for cargo, passengers and other equipment. • This contains the cockpit from where the pilot controls the aircraft.

  21. MAIN PLANE / WINGS :- • The function of the main plane is to provide sufficient lift and to support the weight of the aircraft in flight. • Therefore the main plane must be of an aerofoil section. • The construction of the main plane must be strong enough to transfer this lift to the fuselage.

  22. AILERON :- • The ailerons are the control surfaces hinged on the aircraft’s wing structure to form a movable section of the wing trailing edge near the wing tip. • The surface controls the rolling movement of the aircraft. • The ailerons are always connected so as to move in opposite direction. • The ailerons are operated by the control column from the cockpit.

  23. FLAPS :- • Flaps are usually fitted on the trailing edge on the underside close to the fuselage. • Flaps are made movable downwards to various degrees and are used for different stages of flight. • When flaps are extended, augments lift and increases drag beyond certain degree of their extension.

  24. ELEVATOR :- • The elevators are pair of control surfaces hinged to the rear spar of the tail plane and are connected to the control column. • Elevators are normally coupled together to operate as a one unit. • The forward movement of the control column moves the elevator downwards and vice versa. • Elevators controls the aircraft about the lateral axis, i.e pitching movement.( Nose up and down attitude)

  25. FIN :- • Fin gives directional stability by increasing the keel surface. • The fin is separately fastened to the fuselage tail bay or is built integral with the fuselage tail bay. • The fin gives attachment points for the rudder

  26. RUDDER :- • The rudder is hinged to the rear of the fin is connected to the rudder bar. • Rudder is a movable vertical surface for controlling the motion of aircraft about the normal axis. • Rudder give directional stability to the aircraft. • Rudder is connected to the rudder bar of pedals in the cockpit by means of cables, number of pulleys and fairleads.

  27. AIR BRAKES :- • An air brake is an integral part of the aircraft. • It can be extended to increase the drag of an aircraft at will. • The effectiveness of airbrakes increases with the speed of the aircraft. • Air brakes are operated hydraulically and controlled by a micro switch from the cockpit.

  28. UNDER CARRIAGE :- • The under carriage may be located either under the fuselage, center section or under main planes. • The under carriage supports the weight of the aircraft on the ground. • It allows landing and take-off. • The under carriage absorbs shocks when aircraft lands.

  29. ENGINE :- • The engine is accommodated in the nacelle on the wings or in the fuselage. • It gives power to the aircraft.

  30. FUSELAGE

  31. FUSELAGE • The fuselage is the main structure or body of the aircraft. • Fuselage provides attachment for the main plane, tail unit and in many cases for engines and under carriage. • It also provides space for the cargo, control accessories, passengers and other equipment. • In single engine aircraft it houses the power plant. • A fuselage must resist the bending and twisting forces acting on it.

  32. Bending Force :- A up and down bending force due to tail and elevator loads and tail wheel load while taxing. • Twisting Force :- A twisting force due to rudder and fin loads acting of the centre line.

  33. Materials used in fuselage :- • A wide range of materials used in airframe for fuselage construction are steel, aluminium, magnesium, titanium, wood, fabric, glass, plastic and rubber.

  34. Types of fuselage construction • Fabric covered fuselage • Stressed Skin • Monocoque Construction

  35. Fabric Covered Fuselage:- • A fabric covered tubular structure used for fuselage construction. • This is one of the cheapest and most widely used. • This is commonly used for small, light weight aircrafts.

  36. Stressed skin construction :- • Stressed skin is used on frames and stringers. • The stringers seen alongside fuselage while the frames are made and fitted across it. • The skin is attached to stringers and frames with rivets.

  37. Monocoque Construction:- • The word monocoque is a French word meaning a single shell. In practice there is no pure monocoque construction. • The true monocoque construction uses frame assemblies and bulk heads to give shape of the fuselage, but the skin carries the primary stress. • The main problem in monocoque construction is maintaining enough strength while keeping the weight within allowable limit.

  38. MAIN PLANES

  39. Main Planes (OR) Wings • The function of the main plane is to provide sufficient lift to the aircraft. • The main plane / wing supports the weight of the aircraft in flight. • The main plane must be of an aerofoil section. • The construction of the main plane must be strong enough to transfer the lift to the fuselage.

  40. Bi Planes :- They are made of two set of main planes. • Braced Monoplanes :- Bracing struts are used from fuselage to a point approx half way along the wing. • Cantilever Main planes:- All external bracing and support is eliminated which results in the need of deep wing spars and a result thick wings.

  41. Bi – Plane Aircraft :

  42. Braced Monoplane Aircraft :

  43. Cantilever Monoplane :

  44. Forces acting on Main Plane :- • The main plane must be able to resist the following forces acting on it i.e. • Bending • Twisting • Shear

  45. Bending :- Up and down bending force due to the lift and weight, and a backward bending force due to drag. • Twisting :- Twisting is due to lift and weight being unevenly distributed and also due to the action of ailerons and flaps. • Shear :- A vertical shear force due to lift and weight, and also horizontally backwards shear force due to drag.

  46. AILERON, ELEVATOR & RUDDER

  47. Primary control surfaces • Elevators • Aileron • Rudder

  48. ELEVATOR :- • The elevators area pair of control surfaces hinged to the rear spar of the tail plane and are connected to the control column. • Elevators are normally coupled together to operate as a one unit. • The forward movement of the control column moves the elevator downwards and vice versa. • Elevators controls the aircraft about the lateral axis, i.e pitching movement.( Nose up and down attitude)

  49. Elevators Operation:- • Elevators are linked to the control column, movement of the control column forward lowers the elevators, thus increasing the lift on the tail plane. This increased lift on the tail plane lowers the nose of the aircraft result in a dive. Similarly elevators up results in a climb. The elevators are operated by the control column , control column forward – elevators down, control column back – elevators up.

  50. AILERON :- • The ailerons are the control surfaces hinged on the aircraft’s wing structure to form a movable section of the wing trailing edge near the wing tip. • The surface controls the rolling movement of the aircraft. • The ailerons are always connected so as to move in opposite direction. • The ailerons are operated by the control column from the cockpit.