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USNORTHCOM Area of Responsibility

USNORTHCOM Area of Responsibility. Overview. US National Security Concerns Regional Cultural Perspectives The Combatant Command. US National Security Concerns. Geography Border Security Illegal Drug Trade CBRN & ICBM Threats The Arctic. Detecting Missile Threats.

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USNORTHCOM Area of Responsibility

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  1. USNORTHCOMArea of Responsibility

  2. Overview • US National Security Concerns • Regional Cultural Perspectives • The Combatant Command

  3. US National Security Concerns • Geography • Border Security • Illegal Drug Trade • CBRN & ICBM Threats • The Arctic Detecting Missile Threats Protecting our Air, Land, and Seas

  4. US National Security ConcernsGeography • Majority of North America • CONUS & Alaska • Canada • Mexico • Surrounding waters out to 500 nm • Air, land, and sea approaches • Gulf of Mexico • Straits of Florida • Portions of the Caribbean including The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, US & British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, and Turks and Caicos Islands

  5. US National Security ConcernsGeography • United States: • 3rd largest nation geographically • 3.5 million square miles of land • 88,000 miles of tidal shoreline • Annual Border Traffic: • 11.2 million trucks • 2.2 million railcars • 7,500 foreign-flagged ships make 51,000 calls to cross borders or enter ports Huge traffic flow and freedom of movement presents national defense challenges that our enemies can readily exploit

  6. US National Security ConcernsBorder Security • US-Mexico border often grabs headlines … • US-Canada border and surrounding seas/ports also pose major challenges • US & Canadian border = longest in the world • The Bahamas = ideal route for smuggling • Our National Guard • Logistics for border patrol, law enforcement • Intelligence gathering and reconnaissance

  7. US National Security ConcernsIllegal Drug Trade • International narcotics business = $400B worldwide … fueled by many US consumers • US is single largest market for illegal drugs • 13M Americans occasional drug users • 5-6M Americans have serious drug habit • Drug Routes: • Canada: Marijuana, ecstasy to US • The Bahamas: Cocaine & marijuana to US/Europe • Mexico: 90% of cocaine movement to US

  8. US National Security ConcernsIllegal Drug Trade • Size, power, and ingenuity of drug cartels are overwhelming local, state, national gov’ts • Tactics: tunnels, specialized vehicles, catapults • Use of modern transportation & communication • Impacts: • Deterioration of governments / democracy • Weakened institutions less able or incapable of preventing and combating terrorism, arms trade and other criminal activity to include WMD

  9. US National Security ConcernsCBRN & ICBM Threats • CBRN • Globalization: allows people/products to traverse globe rapidly • Internet: reduces technical obstacles to obtaining and developing terror weapons • ICBMs • North Korea: road-mobile models • Iran: launch of satellites • Proliferation to other state and non-state actors

  10. US National Security ConcernsThe Arctic • Diminishing polar ice leading to “Cold War” • US, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Russia, China • 13% of world’s undiscovered oil • 30% of world’s untapped natural gas

  11. US National Security ConcernsThe Arctic • Recent developments: • Russia increased naval operations • China achieved formal observer status on the Arctic Council and furthered diplomatic, scientific, and trade initiatives with Nordic nations

  12. Regional Cultural Perspectives • Family and Kinship • Language and Communication • Economics and Resources US-Bahamian PA Training US, Canada, and Mexico Air Chiefs Conference

  13. Regional Cultural PerspectivesFamily and Kinship • Nuclear Family (also single-parent, blended, and same sex) • Eskimo Kinship • Based around nuclear family where husband and wife are biological parents of children • Non-biologically related parents, children, siblings result in new terms (stepbrother, stepmother, etc.) • Neolocal Residences • Upon marriage, people separate from childhood nuclear family and form a new nuclear family

  14. Regional Cultural PerspectivesFamily and Kinship • Nuclear family driven by westward expansion / industrial history • Contributed to single-parent household acceptance • Fictive Kinship • Baptismal sponsorship by an individual not related by blood

  15. Regional Cultural PerspectivesFamily and Kinship • Modern USNORTHCOM families almost exclusively consuming, rather than producing, unit • Public agencies serve role historically filled by families (caring for sick or aged, educating children, recreation) • Technological advancements make it possible for couples to decide if and when to have children

  16. Regional Cultural PerspectivesLanguage and Communication • What is the primary language of Canada? Mexico? US? • US has 5th largest Spanish-speaking population in world • By 2050, general US population is estimated to be near 30% Hispanic heritage • 27 of 50 states have official-language laws, mostly passed since 1970s w/increase in immigration debates

  17. Regional Cultural PerspectivesEconomics and Resources • 3 of the largest economies in the world • Wealthiest nation in the Caribbean • Affluence of region due in part to free-market economies and high reliance on free trade agreements • 90% of Mexican trade under free trade agreements w/over 50 countries

  18. Regional Cultural PerspectivesEconomics and Resources • NAFTA: • Signed 1993, implemented January 1994 between US, Canada, Mexico • Removed most barriers to trade and investment • Created world’s largest free trade area, linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion in goods/services

  19. Regional Cultural PerspectivesEconomics and Resources • NAFTAImpacts • Canada and Mexico are top 2 purchasers of US exports and 32% of overall US exports, 2d and 3d largest suppliers of US imports • US absorbs approximately three-fourths of Canadian exports each year • Canada is largest foreign supplier of energy to US including oil, gas, uranium, and electricity • Canada is number one export nation for goods from US and number two nation for imports to US

  20. Regional Cultural PerspectivesEconomics and Resources • NAFTA PROs: • Trade quadrupled between countries (1993-2010) • Reduced dependence on Middle East for Oil • Boosted US farm exports • NAFTA CONs: • US wages suppressed; cheaper Mexican labor • Rural Mexican farmers can’t compete with US • Mexico’s environmental deterioration--agribusiness chemicals/pollution

  21. Regional Cultural PerspectivesEconomics and Resources • Regional Poverty • Poverty defined in highly industrialized/affluent societies such as US and Canada differs from other nations; rates of 9-15% in US, Canada & The Bahamas can be misleading • Poverty rate in Mexico is estimated at 18% based on access to food and basic supplies; asset-based poverty rate closer to 51% • Poverty & income disparity in Mexico lead to crime, unemployment, other economic problems

  22. The Combatant Command • Evolution of Homeland Defense • Structure • Mission Areas Hurricane Irene Response Firefighting Operations

  23. The Combatant CommandEvolution of Homeland Defense 1775 – 1812: America defines role of national military 1878: Role of national military restricted during Reconstruction 1941: Homeland attacked – Pearl Harbor a day which will live in “infamy” 2001: 9-11 attacks redefine our need for homeland defense

  24. The Combatant CommandStructure • US Northern Command • Established on 1 Oct 2002 • Peterson AFB CO • First time a single military commander charged with protecting US homeland since General George Washington • Mission: “USNORTHCOM partners to conduct homeland defense, civil support and security cooperation and defend and secure the United States and its interests.”

  25. The Combatant CommandStructure • Four-star billet • Dual-hatted as NORAD Commander • Bi-national command • Provides aerospace warning, aerospace control, and maritime warning for Canada, Alaska and the CONUS • Unique Challenges • Laws, sovereignty, Posse Comitatus • Few permanently assigned forces

  26. The Combatant CommandStructure Joint Force HQ National Capital Region Joint Task Force Alaska Joint Task Force Civil Support • Air Force North • Army North • US Fleet Forces Command • US Marine Forces Northern Command Joint Task Force North

  27. The Combatant CommandMission Areas Three Mission Areas: • Homeland Defense • Defense Support for Civil Authorities (DSCA) • Security Cooperation

  28. The Combatant CommandMission Areas Homeland Defense • Antiterrorism & Force Protection • Posturing of military infrastructure to • mitigate and prevent terrorist attacks • Info-sharing to enhance civilian entities • Aerospace Warning & Control • Coordination with NORAD to counter • conventional and asymmetric threats • Operation Noble Eagle: 62K sorties

  29. The Combatant CommandMission Areas Homeland Defense • Missile Defense • Ground-Based Interceptors • Integrated Air/Missile Defense • Training, Exercise & R&D Assist • Maritime Warning & Control • Supports execution of the National • Maritime Security Strategy • Cyber Security • Joint Cyber Center – to recognize • and assess threats

  30. The Combatant CommandMission Areas DSCA • CBRN Consequence Management • Preparation for possible chemical, • biological, radiological, or nuclear • events (exercises, training) • Natural Disaster Response • Steps in when emergencies exceed the • capabilities of local, state, and federal • agencies (resources, technical know-how) • Wildland Firefighting • Hurricane Sandy

  31. The Combatant CommandMission Areas DSCA • Dual Status Commanders • Fundamental change in civil support • SECDEF & Governors authorize specially • trained/certified military officers to • command federal and state civil authorities

  32. The Combatant CommandMission Areas Security Cooperation • Cooperation with Mexico • Partnership in hemispheric security issues • Proliferation of Transnational Criminal Orgs • Western Hemispheric Institute • for Security Cooperation • Democracy, human rights, military topics • Impacts 1K Latin American leaders annually

  33. The Combatant CommandMission Areas Security Cooperation • Cooperation with The Bahamas • Counternarcotics efforts / cooperation • Hawk’s Nest Forward Operating Base • Air National Guard State Partnership • Program with Rhode Island • Partnership with Canada • Beyond the Border initiatives to improve • security and promote commerce • Cooperation on Arctic issues

  34. Review • US National Security Concerns • Regional Cultural Perspectives • The Combatant Command

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