01 Welcome to Mars
02 First Permanent Settlement on Mars Thesis Goals This thesis will strive to answer three parallel questions. Social and Design Challenge: How can a small group of people create a viable community in isolation? How can the habitable spaces be made sustainable and pleasant for humans living in extreme conditions? Engineering and Scientific Challenge: What are the engineering and structural imperatives, constraints, and opportunities in constructing habitable environments on Mars? Architecture and Engineering Synergy The two themes will be bound by the question of to what extent can architectural considerations have an impact on a construction with tight engineering constraints?
03 Mars – size and orbit 23.5o 25.2o Earth Radius = 6378 km Day = 24h Year = 365.25 days Mars Radius = 3397km Day = 24h 40min Year = 687 days = 667 sols
04 Mars – gravity and temperature Earth Mars 50oC max 50oC 30oC max 15oC mean 0oC -50oC -30oC mean 1G 0.38G -100oC Gravity Temperature
05 Mars – elevation, atmospheric pressure and radiation Olympus Mons = 1 mb 24000 m Solar wind 8854 m Mt. Everest = 320 mb Potosi, Bolivia = 620 mb Sea level = 1013 mb 4000 m 0 m Cosmic rays -6000 m Hellas Planitia = 10 mb Mariana Trench -11000 m Elevation Atmospheric Pressure Radiation sources Solar flares
06 Settlement mission • Establish a permanent base on Mars from which high-value scientific and engineering research can be performed • search for past and present life on Mars • basic science research to gain new knowledge about the solar system’s origin and history • applied science research on how to use Mars resources to augment life-sustaining systems
07 Setting • NASA’s ‘Mars Reference Mission’ • first three missions land at the same site and accumulate • infrastructure for an outpost with 12 crew members. • - Habitat is 4 vertical cylinders, 2 stories, 7.5 meters in diameter. • - Power by two 160 kW nuclear power plants and photovoltaic arrays. • - Greenhouses, a life support and in-situ recourse utilization machinery. • - Three pressurized rovers with attachments to aid in construction. • Construction of the permanent habitat begins with the arrival of the fourth crew.
08 First phase of development – 24 inhabitants total population = 24 (12 on Mars and 12 more arriving every 2.7 years) 12 single + 6 couples 6 builders + 6 ‘alchemists’/engineers + 4 farmers + 7 scientists + 1 commander/administrator total habitable area = 1000 m2 + 2400 m2 greenhouses Builders – work on expanding the habitat. Mainly on EVA + some studio planning work Engineers – Establish and maintain life support. Repair the exterior chemical plant. Or bring farmers modules in garage for work. Develop new resources in vicinity of base. Farmers – Work mainly in plant preparation area. Occasionally go inside plant rated greenhouses. Share research space with the scientists. Scientists – Rotate on roving trips. Analyze samples in open lab space. Synthesize results in more private area or at private quarters. Commander – Leads and coordinates work at base. Commutates with ground control. Cooking and Cleaning – shared equally by all or rotated.
09 settlement growth Arriving 1st Landing - 12 4 builders 2 engineers 4 farmers 2 scientists 2nd Landing -12 2 builders 4 engineers 6 basic science 3rd Landing – 12 4 engineers 4 farmers 4 basic science Total 4 builders 2 engineers 4 farmers 2 scientists 12 total 6 builders 6 engineers 4 farmers 7 basic science 1 commander 24 total 6 builders 10 engineers 8 farmers 11 basic science 1 commander 36 total Completed base 1 commander 4 communications - command and communications room 5 doctors/psychologists - labs 40 basic science - 2 three-person expeditions at all times - 34 work in labs at base 10 builders - work outside and small indoor planning room 24 farmers - greenhouses and supporting areas 12 engineers - fix machinery everywhere, monitor systems from central location 96 total
10 Site Mesas in Candor Chasma
11 Site • scaled Earth city texture • Venice, Italy • US capitol, Washington DC • North End, Boston MA • Suburb, Champaign IL • 1 tick = 100m
12 Construction Methods - Need for Local Construction - Continuing to rely on habitats brought from Earth is an unsustainable strategy unless truly revolutionary advances in transportation technology are made. - Maximize use of Martian materials and simple, well understood, and tested building techniques. • inflatables with rigid support • low mass • advantage in weight to volume ratio compared to rigid shell structures. • relatively small deployment operations • can be tested on Earth • masonry • manufacture bricks using regolith reinforced with fibers from used parachutes • using leaning arches and self supporting domes, one can construct a wide range of spaces using no scaffolding.
13 supporting the internal pressure pressurized inflatables vs. weight of regolith cover • Masonry is lined with non-structural liner • and covered with regolith which balances • the internal pressure. • allows larger open spaces • no view • 1.5 g/cm3 regolith density and 60kPa internal pressure – 10 m of regolith are required. • assuming igneous rocks – 6 m of cover. • Make sure that load lines for both load pressurized and unpressurized load case fit inside the masonry. • Rigid floor structure from which a bladder is inflated. • Bladder provides all the resistance to internal • pressure. • allow view • compartmentalized space • maximize the bladder as a pressure membrane • brick vaults: • hold weight of radiation protection • remain rigid in case of pressure loss • some thermal insulation • noise insulation • protects bladder during inflation Use inflatables for spaces that require access to the exterior – airlocks, greenhouse support, and private quarters. Use regolith covers vaults for larger spaces with no view – public areas, kitchen/dinning, labs, and baths.
14 Vaults leaning arches – no scaffolding
15 Domes techniques from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia – no scaffolding
16 Inflatables Adopted for gravity environment from technology demonstrated by the Transhab proposal for ISS – rigid internal structure from which the bladder inflates
17 Imported elements - airlocks, inflatables, greenhouses
18 Organization Diagrams – Linear City – Keeps the settlers alive Linear City Derived from historical precedents by Arturo Soria and Le Corbusier. Efficiency in transportation, infrastructure, safety, and ease of expansion. Separately pressurized segments with inflatables or regolith supported masonry Keeps the settlers alive.
19 Organization Diagrams Utilities Air, water and power distribution in sub floor panels
20 Organization Diagrams Entrance
21 Organization Diagrams Formal meeting space
22 Organization Diagrams Work spaces
23 Organization Diagrams Private quarters
24 Organization Diagrams Social spaces
25 Organization Diagrams Spaces arranged along the infrastructure organized through the relationship between the humans and the vegetation.
26 Diagrams – Vegetation – Makes the settlement a city vegetation as symbol A special place immediately between the main entrance and the formal meeting space. Plant five special trees on arrival – one for each continent. Symbolize hope in the future of the settlement. The trees will grow as the settlement expands. When people arrive from Earth the first thing they’ll see as they enter is the grove of trees. big, long lasting trees
27 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as life support Plant-rated greenhouses optimize atmosphere, light, structure and safety for specially designed plants. The farmers plant seedlings and harvest the crops from inside a pressurized area with the aid of robots. fast growing, engineered plants
28 Diagrams – plant spaces plant as mediation of view Views of Mars are mediated by vegetation. Look at RED through GREEN Every private suite has a small garden area in front of its window. Terminate connector segments with small gardens and a window to Mars. small potted plants
29 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as green belt Where work areas need to provide a connection, use a row of vegetation to separate the circulation from the work spaces. dense plantings of bamboo
30 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as mediator of social life – version 1 The common The trees are at the center of the social space. The various social spaces are arranged around the periphery. Every space looks at the others through the vegetation. The trees provide much needed change in the underground space. The trees need the same protection as the humans. Both share the safest space under the hill. Use the bamboo for building material. Fruit trees for food. bamboo and other useful trees
31 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as mediator of social life – version 2 Clearing in the woods A Chinese garden Social space is surrounded and protected by trees. The edges of the space are hidden thus the limited size of the space is obscured. bamboo and other useful trees
32 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as mediator of social life – version 3 Pocket gardens providing focused diagonal views between social spaces. bamboo and other useful trees
33 Diagrams – plant spaces hybrid – green belt & pocket gardens bamboo and other useful trees
34 Inflatables • Inflatable sits on a masonry foundation, inside a masonry dome. • The bladder and frame resist the interior air pressure. • The masonry: • holds one meter of regolith for radiation protection. • maintains overall stability if pressure is lost to one unit. • protects bladder from meteorites • protects bladder from abrasion by dust storms.
35 Inflatables Frames at ends support windows and doors. Belts and transverse cables force the bladder into a roughly prismatic form. Beams resist gravity live loads
36 Inflatables Air ducts and power lines run in the floors and sit above the transverse cables. Tray in front the windows can allow each resident to grow some personal plants.
37 Inflatables Floor panels span between the beam and cantilever out to the bladder. Originally they could be made of imparted material, but eventually out of locally grown bamboo. Vertical partitions can also made in modules that can attach the to superstructure.
38 Inflatables Inflated bladders.
39 Inflatables The unit inside the masonry vault.
40 Inflatables The frame spans between two masonry foundations, allowing the pressure on the bottom to be resisted by a bladder as well.
41 Inflatables Ducts connect to the main utility lines between the floors.
42 Inflatables Double units for a couple can be made by connecting quarters of the module vertically or horizontally.
43 Social Diagrams Spaces for an INDIVIDUAL
44 Social Diagrams Spaces for TWO PEOPLE
45 Social Diagrams Spaces for INFORMAL SUBGROUPS
46 Social Diagrams Spaces for FORMAL SUBGROUPS
47 Social Diagrams Spaces for the WHOLE COMMUNITY
48 Social Diagrams Gradient of social spaces
49 first phase – 24 residents • Original base • Airlocks and life-support • Greenhouses • Private quarters • Public spaces • Work spaces
50 full base with 96 residents - expansion in linear bands • Original base • Airlocks and life-support • Greenhouses • Private quarters • Public spaces • Work spaces