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Morgan Phister Cassidy Bunger Allie Ball Leighton Blakenburg Tejas Narkede Brooks D’Antonio P.2

Motivation and Work. Morgan Phister Cassidy Bunger Allie Ball Leighton Blakenburg Tejas Narkede Brooks D’Antonio P.2. Theories of Motivation. Instinct Theory-

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Morgan Phister Cassidy Bunger Allie Ball Leighton Blakenburg Tejas Narkede Brooks D’Antonio P.2

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  1. Motivation and Work Morgan Phister Cassidy Bunger Allie Ball Leighton Blakenburg Tejas Narkede Brooks D’Antonio P.2

  2. Theories of Motivation • Instinct Theory- • Definition: A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned (supported by evolutionary psychologists). • Explanation: For example, cats and other predatory animals have an instinctive motivation to react to movement in their environment to protect themselves and offspring. • Drive Reduction Theory (Need and Drive)- • Definition: The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. • Explanation: The need to been in a state of homeostasis (regulatory equilibrium). • Homeostasis & Metabolism- • Definition: A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. • Explanation: Hunger and feeling the need to eat.

  3. Theories of Motivation • Arousal Theory- • Definition: There is an optimum level of arousal, that is, of alertness and activation, at which performance on a given task is optimal. • Explanation: A moderate arousal level seems optimal for most tasks, but optimal varies by person and task. • Incentive Theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)- • Definition: A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. • Explanation: Tasks of moderate difficulty, neither too easy nor too hard, elicit the highest level of performance. • Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz)- • Definition: Any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. • Explanation: Used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject (hypothesized to have a critical period).

  4. Theories of Motivation • Curiosity: natural inquisitive behavior such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and many animal species. • Arousal: state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the reticular activating system in the brain stem, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. • Competence and Achievement: desire for significant accomplishment, for mastering skills or ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard. • Self- Efficacy- person’s belief about his or her ability and capacity to accomplish a task or to deal with the challenges of life.

  5. Roles of the Hypothalamus • There are two distinct hypothalamic centers that help control eating • Lateral hypothalamus: brings on hunger. • When electrically stimulated there, a well fed animal would begin to eat; when the area was destroyed, even a starving animal would not eat. • Ventromedial hypothalamus: depresses hunger • Stimulate this area and an animal will stop eating; destory it and the animal’s stomach and intestines will process food more rapidly causing it to eat more.

  6. Glucostatic Theory • The body is normally adept at maintaining its blood glucose level but if that level drops hunger increases. • Low blood glucose triggers hunger. • You do not consciously feel this change • Your brain automatically monitors information on your body’s internal state • Signals from your stomach, the intestines, and the liver all signal the brain to motivate eating or not. • The complementary areas of the hypothalamus influence how much glucose is converted to fat and how much is left available to fuel immediate activity.

  7. Hormonal Regulation • Metabolic activity in different tissues • Signaling molecules that one cell releases into the bloodstream • Can change metabolism • Neurotransmitters can act as hormones as well

  8. Insulin (Hunger) • Regulates carbohydrates and fat • Stops the use of fat as an energy source • When absent, glucose isn’t taken up by the body’s cells and begins to use fat as an energy source

  9. Cholecystokinin (CKK) Satiety • Cholecystokinin stimulates the digestion of fat and protein • In first segment of small intestine, and releases enzymes and bile • CKK is made up of amino acids

  10. Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that make your body refuse eating anything • Why? Most cases are caused from people being afraid of being “over-weight” even if they are not. Have fears of gaining weight, this is all cognitive. • Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that a person binges or purges. • Why? People are addicted and have this disorder similar to the reasons Anorexia disorder. They’re afraid of being over-weight, so instead of not eating anything they just purge right afterwards.

  11. Predispositions and Social Factors • Genetic Predisposition: A genetic pattern that is inherited to make one susceptible to a certain disease. • Social Factors: When people talk to each other… there is always a conveying message in the conversation. • Cultural Factors: A set of beliefs, moral values, language, traditions, and rules of behaviors or “rules” held in common by a nation, community, or families.

  12. Sources of Motivation • Evolutionary view- neuropsychological processes that underlie motivation, emotion, and self-control. • Biological factors- driving force which help causes us to achieve goals • Emotional factors- underlying emotions trigger the drive of motivation • Cognitive factors- motivation is all in how you mentally push yoursellf • Social factors- if you are self motivated, you will succeed

  13. Factors of Motivation • Personal Factors- motivation is self induced and is not only controlled by the body, but the mind as well • External Cues- external forces can contribute to the differences in personal motivation

  14. Achievement of Motivation • Achievement Motivation - an individual's need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment. • Psychologist David McClelland studied workplace motivation • Theorized that workers as well as their superiors have needs that influence their performance at work. • It is regarded as a central human motivation.

  15. Fear of Failure/Success • If the motivation to achieve success is weaker than the motive to avoid failure, the person will withdraw from the achievement situation • Fear of failure- causes people to give less than their best effort, not take risks, and, ultimately, never achieve complete success. • If the motivation to achieve success is stronger than the motive to avoid failure, the person will enter into the achievement situation. • Fear of success- Need to refrain from maximally utilizing one's abilities in achievement situations because of expected negative consequences. Failure Success

  16. Need to Belong • Also known as the need for affiliation • Want to be liked and accepted by others and attach importance to a personal interaction • Tend to conform to the norms of their work • Strive to make/keep relationships with high amounts of trust/ mutual understanding • Prefer cooperation over competition • McClelland believed that a strong need for affiliation undermines the objectivity and decision making capabilities of managers

  17. Work Motivation • Intrinsic Motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective. • Extrinsic Motivation: a desire to perform a behavior hue to promised rewards or threats of punishment. • Over-justification Effect: the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.

  18. Work Components • Theory X: management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can, and that they inherently dislike work. • management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. • manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. • Mistrust • Theory Y: management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. • believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. • manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation.

  19. Work Motivation • Industrial-organizational psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces. Has two main subfields • Personnel psychology: focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. • Organizational psychology: examines organization influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organization change.

  20. Social Conflict • When people feel included and accepted, it raises self-esteem • Social behavior aims to increase belonging to social groups • Seeking love and acceptance are all motivation for belonging

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