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Solar Voltaic Energy

Solar Voltaic Energy

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Solar Voltaic Energy

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  1. Solar Voltaic Energy

  2. Outline • Overview of Solar Power • How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work • How Solar PV Cells are Made • Solar PV • Applications • Efficiencies • Economics • Facts & Trends • Research

  3. Solar Power Overview

  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Sun_w920607.jpg

  5. PV Solar Radiation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

  6. Photon Energy

  7. Light & the Photovoltaic Effect • Certain semiconductor materials absorb certain wavelengths • The shorter the wavelength the greater the energy • Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared light • Crystalline silicon • Utilizes all the visible spectrum plus some infrared radiation • Heat vs. electrical energy • Light frequencies that is too high or too low for the semiconductor to absorb turn into heat energy instead of electrical energy

  8. How PV Cells Work

  9. Florida Solar Energy Center

  10. Cross Section of PV Cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

  11. How Solar Cells are Made

  12. Solar Cell Construction • Materials • Crystalline Silicon • Gallium Arsenide (more expensive) • Grown into large single-crystal ingots • Sawed into thin wafers • 2 wafers are bonded together (p-n junction) • Wafers grouped into panels or arrays http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  13. Creating Silicon Wafers

  14. Growing Silicon Ingots Czochralski Process http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czochralski_process

  15. Drawing a Silicon Ingot http://www.answers.com/topic/silicon

  16. Silicon Ingots & Wafers http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/products2.html

  17. Creating PV Cells

  18. Computer Chips on Wafer http://d0server1.fnal.gov/projects/silicon/www/svxwafer.jpeg

  19. Silicon Solar Cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Solar_cell.png

  20. PV Cells have efficiencies approaching 21.5% Florida Solar Energy Center

  21. Solar Modules and Arrays

  22. Cells are the building block of PV systems Typically generate 1.5 - 3 watts of power Modules or panels are made up of multiple cells Arrays are made up of multiple modules A typical array costs about $5 – $6/watt Still need lots of other components to make this work Typical systems cost about $8/watt Solar PV Systems

  23. Florida Solar Energy Center

  24. PV Modules have efficiencies approaching 17% Florida Solar Energy Center

  25. Florida Solar Energy Center

  26. Solar Panel Solar panel by BP Solar at a German autobahn bridge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  27. Florida Solar Energy Center

  28. Florida Solar Energy Center

  29. Florida Solar Energy Center

  30. Florida Solar Energy Center

  31. Solar PV Applications

  32. International Space Station Hubble Telescope Mars Rover Spacecraft

  33. Recreational Use (Sailboat)

  34. Remote Areas (Mexico) A solar panel in Marla, Cirque de Mafate, Réunion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  35. Residential http://www.californiasolarco.com/photos_html/grid_tied/rootop_system/nevada-city-2-4.html

  36. Commercial Solar Centre at Baglan Energy Park in South Wales http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.htm

  37. Solar PV Efficiency

  38. Solar Cell Efficiencies • Typical module efficiencies ~12% • Screen printed multi-crystalline solar cells • Efficiency range is 6-30% • 6% for amorphous silicon-based PV cells • 20% for best commercial cells • 30% for multi-junction research cells • Typical power of 120W / m2 • Mar/Sep equinox in full sun at equator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

  39. Solar Panel Efficiency • ~1 kW/m2 reaches the ground (sunny day) • ~20% efficiency  200W/m2 electricity • Daylight & weather in northern latitudes • 100 W/m2 in winter; 250 W/m2 in summer • Or 20 to 50 W/m2 from solar cells • Value of electricity generated at $0.08/kWh • $0.10 / m2 / day OR $83,000 km2 / day http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  40. Solar PV Facts & Trends

  41. World Largest PV Solar Plants [edit] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  42. World Solar Power Production http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

  43. Solar Cell Production Volume Sharp Corporation http://sharp-world.com/solar/generation/images/graph_2004.gif

  44. Solar PV Cell Research

  45. Inverter Converts DC power from solar array to AC for use in your home Wiring Connects the system components Batteries Used to store solar-produced electricity for nighttime or emergency use Mainly used for remote sites that aren’t tied into the electrical grid Charge controller Prevents batteries from being over charged Disconnect switches Allows power from a PV system to be turned off Electrical meter Measures electrical production and use Often runs backward if system is attached to the electrical grid Solar PV Components Total system cost = ~$8.00 / watt

  46. BATTERY Stand Alone Solar PV System

  47. Grid Connected Solar PV System

  48. Connecting PV to the Grid

  49. Net Metering • When your system produces more electricity than your home uses • electricity flows backward out to the grid • Meter runs backward and you get credit for the electricity you sell to the utility

  50. Florida Solar Energy Center