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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25

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  1. Chapter 25 Americans and a World in Crisis 1933-1945

  2. Introduction • 1.) How did President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy affect U.S.-Latin American relations? • 2.) How did the American people and their govt. respond to the international crises of the 1930’s? • 3.) How did President Roosevelt and Congress mobilize the country for war?

  3. Introduction (cont.) • 4.) What impact did the war have on the U.S. economy? • 5.) How did the war change American society and affect minorities and women? • 6.) What were the different goals of the U.S.A., G.B. and the U.S.S.R. and how did these goals affect their combat strategies? • 7.) Why did President Truman decide to drop atomic bombs on Japan, and was he justified in doing so?

  4. The United States in a Menacing World, 1933-1939 • Introduction • During FDR’s fist 2 terms, he improved relations with Latin America • Meanwhile, aggressive, militaristic fascist regimes came to power in Italy, Germany, and Japan • The U.S.A. reacted to these developments abroad ambivalently • Torn between dislike of fascism and even stronger desire for peace

  5. Nationalism and the Good Neighbor • The Good Neighbor policy • Agreed that no state has the right to intervene in the affairs of another • Applied in Latin America • Withdrew forces from Haiti and Dominican Republic • Ended the Platt Amendment • Refrained from using force against left-wing govts. in Cuba and Mexico • FDR did apply economic pressure to influence events • FDR’s restraint in using military force improved U.S.-Latin American relations

  6. The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia • Italy • Benito Mussolini • Took control in 1922 • 1938--invaded Ethiopia

  7. The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia (cont.) • Germany • 1933 • Adolf Hitler • Became chancellor of Germany • Absolute dictatorship • Preached racism, aggressive nationalism, and anti-Semitism

  8. The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia (cont.) • Hitler (cont.) • Persecuted the Jews • Military buildup • Conquest of other countries • 1936--Rhineland • 1938--Austria • 1938--Sudetenland • Munich Conference--appeasement by France and Great Britain

  9. Map of Europe up to 1938

  10. The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia (cont.) • 1931--Japanese imperialists seized Manchuria from China • 1937--began a war of conquest to take over all of China

  11. The American Mood: No More War • Americans disliked these actions in Europe and Asia but were determined not to be pulled into another war • U.S.A. participation in WWI as a mistake • Nye Committee • Reveled the roles played by bankers and weapons suppliers in WWI • In the 1930’s, novelists and playwrights condemned war

  12. The American Mood: No More War (cont.) • Neutrality Acts • 1935 • Prohibited the U.S. from making loans or selling arms to “belligerent nations” • Banned Americans from traveling on the ships of nations at war • U.S. Dept. of State link

  13. The Gathering Storm, 1938-1939 • Hitler seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia • Threatened to attack Poland • Signed the German-Soviet Non-Agrresion pact • Ensured Russian neutrality during the planned German invasion of Poland • Mussolini took over Albania

  14. The Gathering Storm, 1938-1939 (cont.) • Many Americans grew alarmed and started to feel that the U.S.A. should take a more active role • FDR sent messages to Hitler and Mussolini asking them to pledge not to invade any other nation • They were responded with ridicule • Roosevelt asked Congress to appropriate much more $$$$ to build up U.S. defenses

  15. America and the Jewish Refugees • Throughout the 30’s, German persecution of the Jews intensified • 1935--Nuremberg Laws • Stripped German Jews of citizenship and rights • 1938--Kristallnacht • A wave of Nazi violence against Jews • Attacked their homes, synagogues, and businesses

  16. America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.) • Tens of thousands of European Jews fled and seek countries that would admit them • Among the refugees were: • Distinguished musicians • Architects • Writers • Scholars • Many would enriched the cultural life of their adopted nation • Physicists Leo Szilard and Enrico Fermi would play key roles in developing the atomic bomb for the U.S.

  17. America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.) • Congress would not amend discriminatory laws to offer a haven to hundreds of thousands of additional Jews needing a safe home • FDR did not exert pressure on Congress to do so either • The majority of Americans opposed letting in more Jews • Isolationist • Anti-immigrant • Anti-Semitic attitudes

  18. America and the Jewish Refugees (cont.) • 1939--the U.S. stopped a ship carrying Jewish refugees and forced it to return to Europe • There the countryless refugees were soon murdered by the Nazis

  19. Into the Storm, 1939-1941 • The European War • Sept. 1, 1939 • WWII began • Hitler attacked Poland • GB and France declared war on Germany • They were committed by a treaty to defend Poland

  20. The European War (cont.) • The U.S.A. revised the Neutrality Acts • Now permitted was the sale of weapons to “belligerents” on a cash-and-carry basis • Many saw this as a way to help Britain and France without having to fight

  21. The European War (cont.) • April 1940--German armies turned on Denmark and Norway • May 1940--they conquered Netherlands and Belgium • mid-June 1940--they captured France

  22. The European War (cont.) • The Battle of Britain • July 10 to Oct. 31, 1940 • German bombing raids over cities in England • Prime Minister Winston Churchill appealed to FDR for help • The majority of Americans favored a stepped-up weapons shipments to GB • An articulate minority feared that such aid would weaken U.S. defenses and needlessly pull the U.S.A. into war

  23. From Isolation to Intervention • In 1940, FDR decided to run for a 3rd term because of the situation in Europe • Republican opponent was Wendell Willkie • During the campaign, Roosevelt continued his interventionist position • Signed an executive agreement with Churchill • Gave Britain 50 overage U.S. destroyers in exchange for leases on air and naval bases in British possession in the Western Hemisphere

  24. From Isolation to Intervention (cont.) • America First Committee • Organized by isolationists • Preached that we must not give any aid to “belligerents” or become involved in the struggle against Hitler • Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented 3rd term

  25. From Isolation to Intervention (cont.) • Lend-Lease Act • Passed Congress in March 1941 • Permitted the president to lend or lease military equipment to any country whose defense he thought vital to American security • June 1941--Hitler attacked U.S.S.R. • Roosevelt gave lend-lease aid to the Soviets and British

  26. From Isolation to Intervention (cont.) • Constant sinking by German U-boats sent most of the supplies to the bottom of the Atlantic • To prevent such losses, the U.S.A.: • Began to convoy British ships as far as Iceland • tracked German submarines • Notifying the British of the location of Germany submarines

  27. From Isolation to Intervention (cont.) • By the fall of 1941, the U.S. and Germany were engaged in an undeclared naval war • Atlantic Charter • Summer of 1941 • Meet off the coast of Newfoundland • Moved Roosevelt and Churchill closer to an alliance • A joint proclamation declaring that they were fighting the Axis powers to “ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom and to preserve the rights of man and justice."

  28. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War • Japan expanded its aggression from China to the resource-rich British, Dutch, and French colonies in Southeast Asia • Japan wanted to dominate all of Asia • This clashed with the Open Door policy • Roosevelt applied economic pressure on Japan

  29. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.) • By 1940, Washington prohibited the sale of aviation gasoline to Japan • Tokyo occupied northern Indochina and signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy=Roosevelt placed an embargo on all items Japan needed • July 1941--Japan seized the rest of Indochina=U.S. froze Japanese assets in the U.S.=ended all trade

  30. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.) • Japan made a last-ditch effort to persuade Washington to reopen trade and recognize Japan’s conquests • If that failed, Japan would attempt to destroy the U.S. Pacific fleet with a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor • Washington knew its refusal would provoke an attack somewhere in the Pacific • Roosevelt would not yield • He sent warnings to all base commanders

  31. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.) • Dec. 7, 1941 • Japan struck Pearl Harbor • History Channel video • Dec. 8 • Congress recognized that a state of war existed with Japan • Roosevelt speech • Dec. 11 • Japan’s 2 allies (Germany and Italy) declared war on U.S. and the U.S reciprocated

  32. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.) • In the months after Pearl Harbor, the United States faced a bleak situation • Nazi submarines prowled off the east coast and took a heavy toll on Allied ships • Hitler’s armies had pushed to the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow • Germany was launching new offensives in the Crimea, Caucasus, and North Africa

  33. Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War (cont.) • Japan took over: • Philippines, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong, Guam, Wake, Singapore, Dutch East Indies, and most of the island chains in the Western Pacific

  34. America Mobilizes for War • Organizing for Victory • To plan the military effort FDR created: • the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of Strategic Services (would later become the CIA) • To mobilize the economy Roosevelt: • Established hundreds of special wartime agencies • War Production Board • Allocated scarce materials, limited manufacture of civilian goods, and awarded military production contracts

  35. Organizing for Victory (cont.) • The U.S. produced more armaments than Germany, Italy, and Japan combined • Govt. contracts guaranteed handsome profits to the giant corporations that received most of the defense contracts • Federal authority and the federal budget grew rapidly • The influence of the military and big corporation on American life grew also

  36. The War Economy • Between 1941 and 1945, the U.S. govt. spent nearly twice as much as it did from 1789 to 1940 • Fueled by this expenditure, the economy boomed • During the war: • Purchasing power of industrial workers went up 50% • Corporate profits climbed by 70% • Unemployment vanished as 17 million new jobs were created

  37. The War Economy (cont.) • Many of the poor moved into the middle class • Most labor leaders gave no-strike pledges • John L. Lewis led his miners on repeated work stoppages • An increasingly conservative Congress retaliated with the antilabor Smith-Connally Act • Office of Price Administration imposed price controls and rationing • Done to curb inflation • As a result, the cost of living only rose by 8% during the last 2 years of the war

  38. The War Economy (cont.) • The govt. raised the huge sums needed to fight the war with: • the sale of bonds • Provided half the money • Steeply increased federal taxes • Provided the rest of the $$$

  39. “A Wizard War” • The govt. also employed thousands of scientists • Manhattan Project • A secret project • Designed to beat the Germans in the race to develop nuclear weapons • Led by physicist Robert Oppenheimer • Spent about $2 billion • July 16, 1945--tested the first nuclear bomb

  40. Propaganda and Politics • Office of War Information and the Office of Censorship • Jobs were to unify Americans and prevent dangerous security leaks

  41. Propaganda and Politics (cont.) • Full employment and prosperity led to a politically conservative trend • In 1942--more Republicans and conservative Democrats were elected to Congress • Cut welfare programs • Abolished New Deal agencies • Halted any further reforms • The role of the federal govt. in people’s lives grew larger • Supervised the economy • Funded research • Molded public opinion

  42. The Battlefront, 1942-1944 • Liberating Europe • The British and Americans concentrated on beating Hitler first, then Japan • Stalin pressed his 2 allies to launch an invasion of Europe as quickly as possible • Churchill convinced Roosevelt that they should land in North Africa first • By May 1943--they had defeated German and Italian armies • Soviets turned the tide of the war in the east • Won at Stalingrad • Held out at Leningrad • Attacked the German invaders along a thousand-mile front

  43. Liberating Europe (cont.) • The British and Americans then captured Sicily and started a slow march up the Italian peninsula • Mussolini was deposed in July 1943 • The new Italian govt. surrendered • Allies encountered stiff opposition from Germany troops

  44. Liberating Europe (cont.) • 1944-1945--the Soviets cleared the Germans out of the U.S.S.R. • The Soviets continued to pursue them across eastern Europe • June 1944--British and Americans landed on the beaches of Normandy • Battle of the Bulge • Dec. 1944-Jan. 1945 • Nazis temporarily stopped the Allied drive • By early 1945, the Americans and British reached the Rhine

  45. War in the Pacific • The Japanese advances in the Pacific were first halted in the spring and summer of 1942 • Battle of Coral Sea and Battle of Midway • U.S.A. Navy and Army assaulted Japanese strongholds in: • Solomon Islands • Gilbert Islands • Marshall Island • Mariana Island

  46. War in the Pacific (cont.) • The U.S. Navy largely destroyed what was left of the Japanese fleet at the Battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf