MONASTICISM • Its rise and spread – hermits were the first to leave the cities and to seek solitude in the desert regions. • Communities of hermits gave rise to monastic life.Monasteries became little cities where likeminded Christians could go to live their faith together. • The Greek word for desert is hermit.A “hermit crab” is a crab that lives in the desert, not necessarily alone. • Hermits sought solitude and a simple but hard life of daily work and prayer. • They broke away from the “noise” of daily life in the cities to seek God in peace and harmony with nature.
MOST INFLUENTIAL CHRISTIAN WRITERS • PAUL is the most influential of all = 13 of the 27 books of the New Testament • JEROME is the 2nd most influential= Completely translated the Bible into Latin • AUGUSTINE is the 3rd most influential = He wrote several Western Theological Classics
3 STYLES OF MONASTICISM • 1. Egyptian – severe asceticism, calls for a simple life of prayer in the desert • 2. Celtic – focused more on daily work • 3. Benedictine – a balanced life between times for work and prayer.
Life at Monte Cassino – Praying the “Liturgy of the Hours” • 2 AM “Nocturn” prayer chant in the chapel • 6 AM Sunrise “Lauds” prayer, meditation • “Prime” prayer, morning work (hard labor) • 9 AM “Terce” prayer sung in the chapel • “He who sings prays twice.” More work. • 11:50 “Sext” prayer chanted in the chapel • Lunch – 1st meal of the day! (Vegetables, bread, wine) Siesta! • 3 PM “None” prayer chanted in the chapel • Tend to crops, sew robes, copy books, bake breads, make wine, feed the hungry • 6 PM “Vespers” prayer in the chapel • Listen to the Word of God • Have a light meal. Time for private reading • Study and rest for the night.
FIVE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF MEN: • 1. Benedictines – O.S.B. (529) (Order of St. Benedict) • 2. Franciscans Friars – O.F.M. (1209) (Order of Friars Minor) • 3. Carmelites – O.Carm. (1209) (Order of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel) • 4. Dominicans – O.P. (1216) (Order of Friars Preachers) • 5. Augustinians – O.S.A. (1256) (Order of Saint Augustine)
Monastery Project A Lesson on Interdependency, Communal Living, and Hierarchy
MP1 – THE ELECTION OF THE LEADERSHIP TEAM • 1st we need to elect our leaders. • We need an abbot or abbess. • We need two counselors for each leader. • The abbot / abbess has absolute authority in the monastery. • You may not directly make requests of the abbot / abbess without first going to one of the counselors. • There is a chain of command that is strictly followed in the monastery.
MP2 - ABBOT / abbess MAKE THE FOLLOWING APPOINTMENTS: • Abbot / abbess – supreme commander / judge • Counselor – upper management • Counselor – upper management • Church – place for prayer and safety during attack • Dormitory – place to sleep at night (latrine / toilet) • Refectory – the place where the community eats together • Cloister (The Well area) – the courtyard and water source • Infirmary – a hospital to take care of the wounded • Kitchen – plan the menu and cook the food • Workshop – What does your monastery need to make? • Library – Monk work on copying scrolls, etc. • Fields, forest, vineyards – source of food and supplies
MP3 – MASTER FLOOR PLAN • TOP-DOWN view of your entire monastery on a large poster board. • The abbot / abbess and the counselors are responsible for the completion of the floor plan. • They may assign tasks to anyone they choose, but the “buck” always falls upon the leaders to get the job done. • Your entire team needs one TOP DOWN view of the entire monastery grounds with all of the locations indicated on the poster. • You may, if you are interested, turn this into a CHOICE POINTS project by erecting a 3D model or 3D picture of your monastery rather than a simple flat blueprint.
MP4 – Individual Floor Plans • Each student must produce a notebook paper sized floor plan for the part of the monastery to which he / she was assigned to manage. • Turn these floor plan in to your counselors. • Counselors will meet with the abbot / abbess to approve these floor plans. • If not approved, the plans must go back to the managers for needed improvements.
(1) “NOCTURN” - 2 AM NIGHTTIME VIGIL (2) “LAUDS”- SUNRISE MORNING PRAYER (3) “TERCE” - 9 AM MID-MORNING PRAYER (4) “SEXT” - 11:50 AM DAYTIME PRAYER (5) “NONE” - 3 PM MID-AFTERNOON PRAYER (6) “VESPERS” - 6 PM EVENING PRAYER (7) “NIGHT PRAYER” - 9 PM (1) MORNING WORK SMALL BREAKFAST CREW(BREAD & COFFEE) (2) MID-MORNING WORK LUNCH CREW(MAIN MEAL) (3) AFTERNOON WORK DINNER CREW(SMALLER MEAL) (4) EVENING WORK The Benedictine Daily Schedule PRAY & WORK
MP5 – Write a maintenance plan for the WORK times assigned to your office. What will your crew be doing? 6 am 1. MORNING WORK DETAIL 9 am 2. MID-MORNING WORK DETAIL noon 3. LUNCH CREW WORK DETAIL 3 pm 4. AFTERNOON WORK DETAIL 6 pm 5. DINNER CREW (a small meal) 9 pm 6. CHANTED NIGHT PRAYER
MP6 – Write one page of Memos to Other Managers For Special Needs EXAMPLES: • To Workshop Master: • From Master Chef: • “Our cooking pots are rusted. • We need a 10 gal. copper kettle for boiling water. • To Workshop Master • From Dormitory Master • We have 3 broken bed frames. Please send a brother to mend the beds. The broken frames are numbered 2, 12, and 13.
Other Sample Memos … • To The Abbot • From the Cloister Master • We discovered a dead chicken in the well today. • We need an alternate source of water this week. • The brother responsible for the crime is in the dungeon. What shall we do with him? • To The Dormitory • From The Church • Sister Insomnia is always late for morning prayer, please check her bed for lice or other vermon.
MP7 – PRAYER & WORSHIP • Your team needs to demonstrate to the class that you can all CHANT together at least ten verses of a Psalm prayer. • Form two “choirs” • Divide your team into two sides. • Side 1 CHANTS the 1st verse of a psalm • Side 2 CHANTS the 2nd verse of the psalm. • Both Sides CHANT the “Glory Be to the Father”
MP8 – Monastery Drama • Each Manager needs to write a scenario of something that is going wrong in their part of the monastery. • Give a written account of any disputes that are happening to the abbot / abbess and the counselors. • The leadership team will receive these scenarios. • The leadership team must prioritize these concerns and call a meeting of the managers to settle the issues. • #1 = 1st top priority! ~ then 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th,etc.
MP9 – Criminal Justice System • Each manager will report a crime to the Abbot / abbess. • The leadership team will decide which case takes precedence and deserves attention. • The Abbot / abbess will hold a trial. Evidence will be presented. • A judgment will be delivered by the council.
MP10 – Superstition Abounds! • Research Dark Ages superstitions. • Reference your Source. • Summarize your finding. • Write a one page short story that describes an imaginary event that lead to the creation of a superstition at your monastery. • Examples: Something to do with why the number 13 is considered unlucky, or why black cats are treated mysteriously as harbingers of evil. • End with how superstitions continue to influence people in the present day.
PAY YOUR PRINTING TOLLS TO THE “THING 1 & 2 ” TROLLS. • The list of print jobs from every account is posted near the printer. • Slip some cash in the plastic bottle guarded by “Thing 1” and “Thing 2”. • Put a √ mark after your amount once paid. • This is an HONOR system. • GOD and the THINGS are watching your every move. PLEASE BE HONEST!