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Web Server Administration

Web Server Administration

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Web Server Administration

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  1. Web Server Administration Chapter 1 The Basics of Server and Web Server Administration

  2. Overview • Review the Internet and the World Wide Web • Learn about server administration • Learn about Web server administration • Explore the common tasks and services performed by administrators • Examine networking building blocks • Compare Web server platforms

  3. Review the Internet and the World Wide Web • The Internet is a worldwide network of networks • Shares WAN used by the international telecommunications network • Uses TCP/IP • Where the Internet uses the HTTP protocol, it is called the Web • Web servers use HTTP to communicate • The Internet is not centrally controlled

  4. Review the Internet and the World Wide Web • Internet had its origins in the 1960s • In 1995 a high-speed backbone was created • Included 4 network access points (NAPs) • More have been created since then • Now much Internet traffic is handled without going through NAPs • Peering agreements allow this

  5. Understanding Server Administration • Server administrators • Focus on the LAN • Provide access to software and services • Make sure environment is reliable and consistent • Minimize harm that users can do to network

  6. Working with Users • A LAN can server hundreds or even thousands of users • Users need to be productive • Users like consistency • Roaming profiles allow users to have the same personalized desktop environment on multiple computers

  7. Establishing Access Control • Users need just enough access to do their jobs, but not more • Typically, users are organized into groups, and groups are given access to network resources • Users can be given different access to the same resources • A document can be read by everyone but modified by only specific people

  8. Understanding the Server Environment • All but the smallest network includes more than one server • With Windows computers, servers and users’ computers can be organized into domains in order to centralize control • In Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, domains can be grouped into forests

  9. Understanding Web server Administration • Web server administrators focus on the Internet • Need to work with ISPs and Web page developers • Typically, a Web server provides information to anyone who requests it over the Internet • Web servers can contain other applications such as FTP and e-mail

  10. Understanding Web server Administration • Depending on the size of the organization, some tasks may be delegated • Web page development • Database design • Programming • E-mail administration • Security

  11. Selecting Programs and Databases • Web server administrators need to install programming languages • Web developers use a variety of languages • Active Server Pages (ASP) • Original language from Microsoft • ASP.Net • A newer environment that includes many languages • Java Server Pages (JSP)

  12. Selecting Programs and Databases • Non-Microsoft languages are popular, even on Microsoft Web servers • Perl – one of the first and still popular • PHP – easy to use • Java Server Pages (JSP) • Macromedia ColdFusion

  13. Selecting Programs and Databases • A database management system (DBMS) is used to store data used with Web pages • Microsoft Access is appropriate for small sites • Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle 9i, and MySQL are sophisticated DBMSs for larger sites • Standard Query Language (SQL) is the language used to communicate with the DBMS

  14. Managing E-mail Servers • Open by design to accept e-mail from anyone • Spam can be a problem to manage • Specific utilities can be used to help minimize spam • Viruses are commonly sent by e-mail • Use virus detection software and keep it updated

  15. Other Applications • Firewall • Helps protect your Web server environment from attack • FTP • A service that allows users to download files from and upload files to a server • DNS • Translates host names such as to an IP address

  16. Administrators' Common Tasks and Services • Installing and configuring systems • Maintaining security • Monitoring the system • Maintenance and backup

  17. Network Building Blocks-The OSI Model

  18. TCP/IP Model

  19. TCP/IP Protocols • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) • Web servers implement this protocol • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Used by e-mail servers (and sometimes Web servers) to send e-mail • Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) • Used to retrieve e-mail

  20. TCP/IP Protocols • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Transfers files to and from server • Domain Name Service (DNS) • Translates host names to IP addresses and IP addresses to host names • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) • Creates a reliable connection between two computers

  21. TCP/IP Protocols • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Does not establish a connection, just sends messages • Internet Protocol (IP) • Provides addressing scheme • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • Provides error messages

  22. Connecting Your LAN to the Internet • Your ISP connects to the Internet • A WAN connection is used between your building and the ISP • A T-Carrier connection is often used • A digital connection for voice and data

  23. Common T-Carrier Connections

  24. Connecting to the Internet

  25. Other ways to Connect to the Internet • Integrated services digital network (ISDN) • Dial-up access • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) up to 128 Kbps • Primary Rate Interface (PRI) up to 1.544 Mbps • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) • Often differing speeds for uploads and downloads • Depending on type, up to 6.1 Mbps for downloads and 1.544 Mbps for uploads • Cable Modem • Shared access cable provided by cable TV company

  26. Web Hosting Solutions • Standard hosting • Your site resides on the same computer with many other sites • Cheapest solution • Dedicated server • You have a server that only you use • Co-location • Your own server is physically located at the company that does your Web hosting

  27. Web Server Platforms-Microsoft • Windows NT (IIS 4) • IIS (Internet Information Server) was added in the mid-1990s, and support for ASP was added later • Windows 2000 (IIS 5) • IIS part of the OS from the beginning • .NET Framework add-on allows use of ASP.NET • Windows Server 2003 (IIS 6) • .NET Framework integrated into OS

  28. Other Microsoft Server Products • Application Center • Allows you to manage a cluster of servers as if it is one server • Biztalk Server • Connects to your business partners using XML • Commerce Server • Builds e-commerce sites in a short amount of time

  29. Other Microsoft Server Products • Internet Security and Acceleration Server • Combines a firewall product with a Web cache • Operations Manager • Helps decrease support costs for a server environment • SharePoint Portal Server • Set up a site that is highly personalized

  30. UNIX/Linux • UNIX was introduced in 1969 • Linux is from the early 1990s • Based on MINIX • Three basic components • Kernel – central portion of OS • File system – provides input and output mechanisms • Shell – provides user interface

  31. Linux • Source code is freely available • Developers can make changes • Available from a number of organizations • Red Hat • Mandrake • SuSe

  32. Summary • Server administration focuses on LANs • Web server administration focuses on the Internet • Both types of administrators install, configure, and maintain servers • Many pieces make up the network • There are many Web server platforms from which to choose