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COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS

COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS

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COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS

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  1. COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS AUTHOR Dr. A. K. AVASARALA MBBS, M.D. PROFESSOR & HEAD DEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY PRATHIMA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, KARIMNAGAR, A.P.. INDIA: +91505417 avasarala@yahoo.com

  2. PROMPT • IWISH TO DEVELOP AN EPIDEMIOLOGY COURSE FOR TEACHING, AS THERE IS GOOD RESPONSE, NATIONALLY AND INTERNATIONALLY FROM THE FACULTY TEACHING EPIDEMIOLOGY, FOR MY PREVIOUS THIRTEEN EPIDEMIOLOGY LECTURES

  3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • READER IS EXPECTED TO LEARN THE NATURE & SCOPE OF COMMUNITY INTERVENTIONS • THE PRECAUTIONS AND STEPS IN CONDUCTING COMMUNITY TRIALS • ABLE TO ANALYSE AND INTERPRET THE RESULTS

  4. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES • READER CAN DESIGN AND PERFORM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS • HE CAN PROMOTE THE HEALTH OF THE COMMUNITY AS A WHOLE BY RISK FACTOR REDUCTION TRIALS

  5. TYPES • PRIMARY PREVENTIVE TYPE (COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS (CIT)

  6. NATURE OF STUDIES • INTERVENTION STUDIES • NOT JUST OBSERVATIONS • EXPERIMENTATIONS

  7. COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS (CIT ) • THE MAIN PURPOSE IS TOREDUCE THE OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES AND DEATHS EARLY IN LIFEIN THE WHOLE COMMUNITY, HENCE THE NAME.

  8. WHY CIT ? IMPACT ON THE HEALTH STATUS OF A COMMUNITY. REDUCTION IN RISK FACTORS . CHANGE TO HEALTHIER LIFESTYLE BY HIGH-RISK GROUPS LEADS TO CHANGE THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHER MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY INTERVENTIONS AIMED AND FOCUSED AT SPECIFIC DISEASES THE INCIDENCE OR COURSE OF OTHER DISEASES. AFFECT HEALTH ACTIVITIES IN COMMUNITIES ENHANCE THE CONFIDENCE IN THE PEOPLE AND THEREBY THEIR INVOLVEMENT AND ACCEPTANCE

  9. GENERAL OBJECTIVES • TO INCREASE HEALTH KNOWLEDGE • OF THE WHOLE COMMUNITY , H E A L T H E D U C A T I O N • TO DEVELOP POSITIVE AND RIGHT ATTITUDE • IN THE COMMUNITY • TO INCREASE THE PRACTICE OF POSITIVE • HEALTH BEHAVIOR OF THE WHOLE COMMUNITY • THEREBY PREVENTING EARLY DISEASES • AND DEATHS IN THE COMMUNITY

  10. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES TO MEASURE VERIFIABLE CHANGES IN: • HEALTH KNOWLEDGE IMPROVEMENT • ATTITUDE • BEHAVIOR

  11. STEPS OF CONDUCTING CIT • SETTING • STUDY DESIGN • INTERVENTION METHODS • EVALUATION OF INTERVENTION • LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

  12. IDEAL SETTING • COMMUNITY IS THE IDEAL SETTING

  13. STUDY DESIGN • QUASI - EXPERIMENTAL TYPE THE INVESTIGATOR WILL NOT BE HAVING AS MUCH OF A CHANCE OF RANDOM ALLOCATION OF THE INDIVIDUALS TO THE TWO GROUPS AS IN CLINICAL TRIALS.

  14. SELECTION OF REFERENCE AND INTERVENTION POPULATIONS • DESIRABLE TO HAVE ALMOST IDENTICAL REFERENCE AND INTERVENTION POPULATIONS TO GET THE VALID RESULTS OUT OF COMMUNITY TRIALS.

  15. NESTED OR EMBEDDED DESIGN Pooled intervention

  16. EMBEDDED DESIGN EMBEDDED TYPE WILL HELP • IN REDUCING SECULAR DIFFERENCES • IN REDUCING CONFOUNDING BIAS AS THE BOTH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN VARIABLE FACTORS WILL BE EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED IN BOTH THE POPULATIONS.

  17. REFERENCE POPULATION THE ONE WITH WHICH THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE TRIAL ON THE INTERVENTION POPULATION ARE COMPARED, ANALYZED, INTERPRETED AND UTILIZED FOR PREPARING PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY.

  18. INTERVENTION POPULATION • THE EXPERIMENTAL POPULATION RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM A COUNTRY OR REGION AND ALMOST IDENTICAL AND COMPARABLE WITH THE REFERENCE (CONTROL) POPULATION IN POSSESSING ALL ITS CHARACTERISTICS.

  19. UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS • COMMONNESS OF TERRITORY, • MORTALITY PATTERN, • MORBIDITY PATTERN, • FERTILITY PATTERN, • CUSTOMS , • SECULAR TRENDS

  20. COLLECTING BASE LINE INFORMATION • PREPARING THE BASE LINE LEVELS OF RISK FACTORS, MORTALITY RATES

  21. INTERVENTION CONCEPT • IDEA IS TO BRING ABOUT THE ATTITUDINAL CHANGE IN THE PEOPLE TO ALTER THEIR NEGATIVE LIFE STYLES AND TO SUSTAIN. • THIS CAN BE ACHIEVED BY MEANS OF THE FOLLOWING SOCIAL SKILL LEARNING TECHNIQUES.

  22. INTERVENTION BY SOCIAL COGNITION/LEARNING SOCIAL COGNITION/LEARNING WHEREIN THE CHANGE OF BEHAVIOR CAN BE ACHIEVED THROUGH INTENSIVE EXPOSURE TO IMPORTANT MODELS LIKE POP STARS, PLAYERS.

  23. INTERVENTION BY REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR WHERE THE CHANGE CAN BE BROUGHT ABOUT BY ADAPTING THE INFORMATION GIVEN BY CREDITABLE PERSON FIRST AND SUSTAINING IT BY SELF MANAGEMENT LATER I.E. BY LEARNING THE NECESSARY SKILLS.

  24. INTERVENTION BYPERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION • CONTINUOUS PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION TO THE PEOPLE THROUGH MASS MEDIA LIKE MOVIES, TELEVISION ETC TO CONVINCE THEM TO ADOPT POSITIVE LIFE STYLES CAN ALSO BRING ABOUT A CHANGE IN LIFE STYLE.

  25. PRECEDE-PROCEED MODEL INTERVENTION The PRECEDE process • Predisposing, • Reinforcing, and • Enabling • Constructs in • Educational-environmental • Diagnosis and • Evaluation) PROCEED process follows with implementation, process, and impact and outcome evaluation.

  26. SOCIAL MARKETING INTERVENTION • PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES ARE THE PRODUCTS TO BE MARKETED AND THE TARGET AUDIENCE, COSTS AND BENEFITS HAVE TO BE DEFINED. • PROPER MESSAGES HAVE TO BE DEVELOPED AND EFFECTIVE CHANNELS FOR ACCEPTANCE HAVE TO BE SELECTED.

  27. EVALUATION OF INTERVENTION • ENDPOINTS TO BE MEASURED • CHANGES IN KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE • MEANS AND PREVALENCES OF RISK FACTORS • SYMPTOMS/SIGNS/PAIN REDUCTION • SPECIFIC MORBIDITY (OBTAINED FROM PRACTITIONERS, HOSPITALS, AVAILABILITY OF MEDICAL SERVICES AND TREATMENT) • SPECIFIC MORTALITY RATES OF THE MOST COMMON DISEASES • TOTAL MORTALITY IN THE BOTH COMMUNITIES

  28. EVALUATION METHODS • POPULATION SURVEYS ARE CARRIED OUT BOTH IN THE REFERENCE AND INTERVENTION POPULATIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY THRICE I.E. BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE INTERVENTION.

  29. TECHNIQUES OF MEASUREMENT • QUESTIONNAIRES – ORAL WRITTEN, OR COMPUTERIZED ONES ARE USED DURING THE SURVEYS • *ANALYTICAL METHODS – LABORATORY TESTS FOR PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS BY TRAINED PERSONNEL DONE BEFORE AFTER CIT TO AVOID OBSERVER VARIATION

  30. ROSENTHAL EFFECT • THE INDIVIDUAL’S NATURE OR PREFERENCE TO ENHANCE OR REDUCE THE VALUE OF THE ENDPOINT WHILE TESTING OR READING THE LABORATORY FINDINGS BECAUSE OF HIS PERSONALITY INFLUENCE HAS ALSO TO BE TAKEN CARE OFF.

  31. CEILING EFFECT • CEILING EFFECT IS SAID TO BE PRESENT IN THE COMMUNITY WHEN A PART OR WHOLE OF THE COMMUNITY POSSESSES PERSONS AT HIGH RISK.

  32. PRECAUTIONS: • NET CHANGES ARE MEASURED UNIFORMLY IN A STANDARDIZED AND SIMILAR MANNER IN BOTH THE REFERENCE (CONTROL) AND INTERVENTION POPULATIONS • INITIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO POPULATIONS HAVE TO BE GIVEN DUE CONSIDERATION.THESE MAY BE DUE TO CHANCE OR REGRESSION TO THE MEAN.

  33. INTENTION TO TREAT PRINCIPLE • THE “INTENTION TO TREAT” PRINCIPLE, THAT IS, ONCE RANDOMIZED, ALWAYS ANALYZED – IS TO BE STRICTLY FOLLOWED

  34. NET CHANGE MEASUREMENT I0 R1 RELATIVE CHANGE I1 R0 FINAL SURVEY BASE-LINE

  35. MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION MODEL • FORMULA: Y = AGE + TIME1 +TIME2 +(COMMUNITY * TIME1) +(COMMUNITY * TIME2)

  36. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EVALUATION: • DELAY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RISK FACTORS HINDERS THE EVALUATION • INTENSITY AND DENSITY OF INTERVENTION DETERMINES THE EVALUATION STRATEGY • STATISTICAL POWER OF THE SAMPLES DETERMINES EVALUATION

  37. THE SUCCESS OF CIT • THE SOCIETAL CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT • AVAILABILITY OF THE OTHER HELPING SOCIAL HEALTH STRUCTURES • POSITIVE PREVENTIVE CLIMATE • THE NEED FOR THE TRIAL MUST BE FELT BY THE COMMUNITY AS A DIRE NECESSITY • PRACTICAL FEASIBILITY, FINANCIAL AND TIME CONSTRAINTS

  38. LIMITATIONS-1 • THE RANDOMIZATION CAN NOT BE ACHIEVED STRICTLY The sampling method may be having inherent error or the sampled communities may be having inherent differences which can, of course, be minimized with difficulty.

  39. LIMITATIONS-2 • CHANGES IN MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY TAKE SEVERAL YEARS TO OCCUR Though it is true to larger extent particularly with the non-infectious diseases, biochemical/ risk factors changes may be seen comparatively earlier in the intervention community.

  40. EFFECT OF IMMIGRATION INTO AND EMIGRATION • IMMIGRATION INTO AND EMIGRATION FROM ANY OF THE TWO COMMUNITIES UNDER TRIAL WILL AFFECT THE EVALUATION AND TRIAL OBJECTIVES. • ONLY THE LIVING PART OF THE COMMUNITY CAN SERVE AS THE USEFUL DENOMINATOR FOR CORRECT ASSESSMENT. HENCE MIGRATION FACTOR HAS TO BE GIVEN DUE CONSIDERATION.

  41. PERSONAL EXPERIENCECOMMUNITY FLUORIDATIONFOR DENTAL CARIES 1990 • START / DURATION: 1992, 5 YEARS • POPULATION: 8000, SHIELANAGAR, VISAKHAPATNAM, • INTERVENTION: FLOURIDATION OF MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES.

  42. NORTH KARELIA PROJECT • START / DURATION: 1972; 10YEARS INTERVENTION. • POPULATION: 180000 INHABITANTS, AGES 25–59 YEARS. • INTERVENTION: COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, REDUCTION OF ARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS.

  43. CORONARY RISK FACTOR STUDY (CORIS) • START / DURATION: 1979; 4 YEARS OF INTERENTION. • POPULATION: 11700 WHITE PERSONS, AGES 15 – 64 YEARS. • INTERVENTION: COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, SMALL MASS MEDIA AND INTERPERSONAL (HIGH INTENSE) INTERVENTION; REDUCE CHOLESTOAL BP, SMOKING STRESS, INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.

  44. STANFORD FIVE CITY PROJECT • START / DURATION: 1980; 5 YEARS INTERENTION. • POPULATION: 122800, AGES 12 – 74 YEARS. • INTERVENTION: COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY INTERVENTION, REDUCE CHOLESTEROL, BP, SMOKING, WEIGHT, INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.

  45. MINNESOTA HEART HEALTH PROGRAM • START / DURATION: 1980: 5 – 6 YEARS OF INTERVENTION. • POPULATION: 231000 ADULTS. • INTERVENTION: IMPROVE HEALTH BEHAVIOUR, REDUCE CHOLESTROL, 7 MG/DL, BP 2MMHG, SMOKING 3%, INCRESE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 50KCAL /DAY, REDUCE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MOBIDITY AND MORTALITY 15%.

  46. PAWTUCKET HEART HEALTH STUDY • START / DURATION: 1981, 7 YEARS INTERVENTION. • POPULATION: 72000 WORKING CLASS PEOPLE. • INTERVENTION: COMMUNITY ACTIVATION

  47. CONCLUSIONS • DUE TO OUR INTERVENTIONS, REDUCTION IN HARMFUL LIFESTYLES/RISK FACTORS WILL OCCUR THEREBY LEADING TO THE REDUCTION IN MORBIDITY, MORTALITY OR DISABILITY RATES.

  48. REFERENCES • Brian Mac Mahan - Epidemiology: principles & methods • Roger Detels, James Mc Even-Oxford Text Book of Public Health • Maxcy-Rosenau-Last, Public Health & Preventive medicine • Brett & Cassens- Public Health Medicine,National Student Series.