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The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners

The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners

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The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners

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  1. The2018NobelPrizeWinners Enago Academy is here to answer all your questions related to academic research and publishing.

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  4. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy The2018NobelPrizeWinners Last updated Oct 10,2018 TheNobelPrizewasestablishedbyAlfredNobel(October21,1833–December10,1896)afamous scientist,inventor,andbusinessmaninhiswilldatedNovember27,1895.Hiswillstatedthatmuchofhisfortune was to be used to give prizes to those who have done their best for humanity in the keld of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. The amount allotted to this cause was to be converted to safe securities by the executors of his will and the interest was to be distributed annually as prizes in the aforementionedcategories.Hiswillfacedoppositionfromhisfamilyandauthoritiesfromvariouscountriesandit tookitsexecutors4yearstoresolvetheseissues. Inaccordancewithhiswill,theNobelFoundation,aprivateinstitutionwasestablishedin1900.ThekrstNobel PrizeforPhysics,Chemistry,PhysiologyorMedicine,Literature,andthePeacePrizewereawardedintheyear 1901.In1968,SverigesRiksbankestablishedTheSverigesRiksbankPrizeinEconomicSciencesinMemoryof AlfredNobelandthekrstprizewasawardedin1969. Asstatedbythewill,theprizesforphysicsandchemistryareawardedbytheRoyalSwedishAcademyofSciences; physiologyormedicinebytheKarolinskaInstituteinStockholm;literaturebytheSwedishAcademyinStockholm; andpeacebyacommitteeofkvepersonsselectedbytheNorwegianStorting.ThePrizeinEconomicSciencesis https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  5. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy alsoawardedbyTheRoyalSwedishAcademyofSciences,Stockholm,Sweden. The AwardsCeremony TheawardsceremonytakesplaceonAlfredNobel’sdeathanniversary,i.e.the10thofDecembereveryyear. TheNobelPrizesinPhysics,Chemistry,PhysiologyorMedicineandLiteratureareawardedinStockholm,Sweden, whiletheNobelPeacePrizeisawardedinOslo,Norway,accordingtoAlfredNobel’swill.TheSverigesRiksbank PrizeinEconomicSciencesinMemoryofAlfredNobelisalsoawardedatStockholm,Sweden. Eachprizeconsistsofamedal,apersonaldiploma,andacashaward.Thecashawardfor2018hasbeensetto9 millionSEKperprizecategory. SchedulefortheAnnouncementoftheNobel Prizes-2018: ThisyeartheSwedishAcademyhasdecidedtopostponethe2018NobelPrizeinLiterature,withtheintentionof awardingitin2019.Theannouncementfortherestoftheprizesareasfollows:  TheNobelPrizeinPhysiologyorMedicine:October1,2018,11:30a.m.attheearliest  TheNobelPrizeinPhysics:October2,2018,11:45a.m.attheearliest  https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  6. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy  TheNobelPrizeinChemistry:October3,2018,11:45a.m.attheearliest  TheNobelPeacePrize:October5,2018,11:00a.m.attheearliest  TheSverigesRiksbankPrizeinEconomicSciencesinMemoryofAlfredNobel:October8, 2018,11:45a.m.attheearliest Related PublicEvents Include: October5,2018-NobelPrizeteachersummit:Teachloveandunderstanding,Stockholm,Sweden October1–8,2018-NobelCalling2018,Stockholm,Sweden December8,2018-NobelPrizeConcertfeaturingLisaBatiashvili,Stockholm,Sweden Top10OddFactsabouttheNoblePrize TheNobelPrizenomineesarekeptclassikedfor50years. Jean-PaulSartredeclinedtheNobelPrizeinLiteratureintheyear1964becausehehadalwaysdeclined ofkcialhonors. LeDucThodeclinedtheNoblePeacePrizein1973.HecitedtheabsenceofactualpeaceinVietnamashis  reason forrefusal. https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  7. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy ThreewinnersoftheNobelPeacePrizewereinprisonwhentheyreceivedtheaward:CarlvonOssietzky,a Germanpacikstandjournalistintheyear1935,AungSanSuuKyi,aBurmesepoliticianintheyear1991, andLiuXiaobo,aChinesehumanrightsactivistintheyear2010. LeonLederman,thewinneroftheNoblePrizeinPhysicsin1988,soldhisNoblePrizefor$765,000inthe year2015tocoverhismedicalcareexpenses. BarryMarshallwontheNoblePrizeinMedicinein2005,forhisworkonthediscoveryofthe bacteriumHelicobacterpylorianditsroleingastritisandpepticulcerdisease.Toprovethatstomachulcers were caused by bacteria and not stress, he drank a broth containing cultured H. pylori and developed stomachulcersafewdayslater. AndreGeim,winnerofthe2010NoblePrizeinPhysicshadalsopreviouslywonthesatiricalIgNobelPrize in2000.HeistheonlyrecipientofboththeIgNobelandNobelPrizes. AlisherUsmanov,aRussianbillionairepaid$4.7millionandpurchasedtheNobelmedalawardedtoJames WatsonforhisworkondecipheringtheDNAdoublehelix.However,hereturnedthemedalbacktothe laureateandaskedforthemoneytobedonatedtoresearch. WhenNielsBohrwonthe1922NobelPrizeinPhysics,Carlsbergbrewerygiftedhimahousenexttothe breweryandconnectedadirectpipelinetoit,sothatBohrcouldhavefreebeerfromthetapwheneverhe wanted. Werner Forssmann, a surgical intern who was forbidden from attempting the krst ever heart catheterizationonpatients,waskredforperformingitonhimself.Thisworkresultedinhimwinninga NobelPrizeforhiscontributionstoMedicine27yearslater YoucantestyourknowledgeabouttheNoblePrizebytakingthisquiz:https://www.nobelprize.org/ WinneroftheNobelPrize2018  TheNobelPrizeinPhysiologyorMedicine ThisyeartheNobelPrizeinPhysiologyorMedicinehasbeenawardedjointlytoJamesP. AllisonandTasukuHonjo“fortheirdiscoveryofcancertherapybyinhibitionofnegative immuneregulation.” The award-winning work is based on James Allison studying a protein that works as a break on the immune systemandunleashesimmunecellstoattacktumorsifthebreakcouldbereleased.Similarly,thejointwinner TasukuHonjoworkedonanotherproteinthatworkedasabreak,butwithadifferentmechanism.Thisformof therapyisrevolutionaryinourkghtagainstcancer.  https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  8. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy  TheNobelPrizeinPhysics ThisyeartheNobelPrizeinPhysicshasbeenawardedtoArthurAshkin,GérardMourou,and DonnaStricklandfor“groundbreakinginventionsinthekeldoflaserphysics.” OnehalfhasbeenawardedtoArthurAshkinfor“theopticaltweezersandtheirapplication tobiologicalsystems”andtheotherhalfjointlytoGérardMourouandDonnaStricklandfor“ theirmethodofgeneratinghigh-intensity,ultra-shortopticalpulses.” Theaward-winningworkofArthurAshkininvolvedtheinventionofopticaltweezersthatarecapableofgrabbing particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells with their laser beam kngers. He successfully used laser light to push small particles towards the center of the beam and hold them there. His major breakthrough in the year 1987wastheuseofthesetweezerstocapturebacteriawithoutharmingthem.Opticaltweezersarecurrentlya populartooltoinvestigatethemachineryoflife. Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland were duly recognized for the creation of the shortest and most intense laserpulsestilldate.Thisworkwaspublishedintheyear1985andwasthebasisofStrickland’sdoctoralthesis. Theduousedaningeniousapproachinvolvingthestretchingoflaserpulsesintimetoreducetheirpeakpower, amplifythemandthenknallycompressthem.Thisresultedinthecreationofultrashorthigh-intensitylaserpulses withoutthelossofamplifyingmaterial.Thisinvention,nowreferredtoas“chirpedpulseamplikcation”isnowthe standard for high-intensity lasers. This revolutionary technology knds extensive application in millions of correctiveeyesurgerieseveryyear. DonnaStricklandisthekrstwomantowinthePhysicsNobelPrizein55yearsandonlythethirdwomantowin theawardinthiscategory;theothertwobeingMarieCurie(1903)andMariaGoeppoert-Mayer(1963).  TheNobelPrizeinChemistry Thisyear,theNobelPrizeinChemistryhasbeenawardedtoFrancesH.Arnold,GeorgeP. Smith,andSirGregoryP.Winter.OnehalfhasbeenawardedtoFrancesH.Arnoldforthe “directedevolutionofenzymes”andtheotherhalfjointlytoGeorgeP.SmithandSirGregory P.Winter“forthephagedisplayofpeptidesandantibodies.”  https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  9. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy Frances H. Arnold’s award-winning work in the year 1993, involved the krst directed evolution of enzymes— proteins capable of catalyzing chemical reactions. She has improvised on this methodology since then and currently,itisusedtodevelopnewenzymesonafairlyregularbasis.Theenzymesdevelopedbyherareusedto manufacturepharmaceuticalcompoundsandbiofuelsinanenvironmentallyfriendlyprocess. GeorgeP.Smith’sandSirGregoryP.Winter’sworkinvolvedthedevelopmentofamethodknownasphagedisplay, whereinabacteriophage(avirusthatcaninfectbacteria)isusedforthedirectedevolutionofnewproteins. Gregory Winter used this methodology to direct the evolution of antibodies for the production of pharmaceuticals. “Adalimumab,” a drug used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatoryboweldiseaseswasthekrstantibodytobeproducedusingthismethodology.Itreceivedapprovalin the year 2002. This was followed by the production of antibodies that can neutralize toxins, counteract autoimmunediseases,andcuremetastaticcancer.  The Nobel PeacePrize Thisyear,theNobelPeacePrizehasbeenawardedtoDenisMukwegeandNadiaMuradfor “theireffortstoendtheuseofsexualviolenceasaweaponofwarandarmedconflict.” DenisMukwege,aphysician,hasdevotedhislifetohelpingvictimsofsexualviolence.Hehasspentagoodamount ofhisadultlifeinhelpingvictimsofsexualviolenceintheDemocraticRepublicofCongo.HeestablishedthePanzi HospitalinBukavuin2008withthesupportofseveralorganizations,andsincethenheandhisstaffhavetreated thousands of individuals who have suffered sexual violence. He has repeatedly condemned impunity for mass rape.HehascriticizedtheCongoleseandothergovernmentsfortheirinabilitytostoptheuseofsexualviolence againstwomen. NadiaMuradisavictimofwarcrimes.SheisamemberoftheYazidiminorityinnorthernIraq.Aspartofanattack againsthercommunity,shewasabductedbymilitantsoftheIslamicState(IS)inAugust2014.TheISmassacred several hundred people and subjected around 3,000 girls and young woman to rape and other abuses. Nadia managedtofleeafterathree-monthnightmareandrefusedtobeashamedorremainsilentabouttheabusesshe wassubjectedto.Sheopenlyspokeabouttheabusessheandthousandsofotherslikehersufferedatthehandsof theIS.ShewasnamedastheUN’skrstGoodwillAmbassadorfortheDignityofSurvivorsofHumanTrafkckingin the year2016. DenisMukwegeandNadiaMuradhavebothriskedtheirpersonalsecurityintheireffortstocourageouslycombat warcrimesandseekjusticeforvictims.  https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  10. 10/12/2018 The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy  TheNobelPrizeinEconomicSciences This year, the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel has been awarded jointly to William D. Nordhaus for “integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomicanalysis”andPaulM.Romerfor“integratingtechnologicalinnovationsinto long-run macroeconomicanalysis.” Nordhaus’award-winningkndingsinvolvedstudyingtheinteractionsbetweensocietyandnature.Hestartedthis workinthe1970sbecauseoftheincreasingworryamongscientistsaboutglobalwarmingduetothecombustion of fossil fuel. He was the krst person in the mid-1990s to create an integrated assessment model. This model describedtheglobalinterplaybetweenclimateandeconomy.Hismodelintegratedtheoriesaswellasempirical resultsfromphysics,chemistry,andeconomics.Thismodelisnowwidelyrecognizedandusedtosimulatetheco- evolution of the economy and climate. Its uses involve examination of the consequences of climate policy interventionssuchascarbontaxes. Romer,ontheotherhand,demonstratedhowknowledgecanfunctionasadriveroflong-termeconomicgrowth. His award-winning work demonstrated how the willingness of krms to produce new ideas and innovations is governed by economic forces. His work, which was published in 1990, laid the foundation of the “endogenous growththeory.”Histheoryisconceptualaswellaspractical,becauseofitsexplanationofhowideasaredifferent than other goods and require specikc conditions to thrive in markets. Romer’s theory has led the way for vast amountsofnewresearchdealingwiththeregulationsandpoliciesthatencouragenewideasaswellaslong-term prosperity. TheRoyalSwedishAcademyofSciencessaidthat“Theirkndingshavesignikcantlybroadenedthescopeof economicanalysisbyconstructingmodelsthatexplainhowthemarketeconomyinteractswithnatureand knowledge.” References: AlfredNobel’swill.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Fri.28Sep2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/alfred-nobel/alfred-nobels-will-2/ AlfredNobel’slife.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Fri.28Sep2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/alfred-nobel/biographical-information/ AlfredNobel’swill.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Fri.28Sep2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/alfred-nobel/alfred-nobels-will-2/ NobelPrizefacts.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Mon.1Oct2018.  https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/nobel-prize-facts/ https://www.scientikcamerican.com/article/12-surprising-facts-about-nobel-prizes/ https://www.kickassfacts.com/20-interesting-facts-about-nobel-prize-laureates/ https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  11. The 2018 Nobel Prize Winners - EnagoAcademy TheNobelPrizeinPhysiologyorMedicine2018.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Mon.1Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2018/summary/ Pressrelease.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Mon.1Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2018/press-release/ TheNobelPrizeinPhysics2018.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Wed.3Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/2018/summary/ Pressrelease.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Wed.3Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/2018/press-release/ TheNobelPrizeinChemistry2018.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Wed.3Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/2018/press-release/ TheNobelPeacePrizefor2018.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Fri.5Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/2018/press-release/ ThePrizeinEconomicSciences2018.NobelPrize.org.NobelMediaAB2018.Mon.8Oct2018. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/economics/2018/summary/ https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/10/press-economicsciences2018.pdf 10/12/2018 https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/

  12. 10/12/2018 This article was originally published at Enago Academy by Enago Editing services which provides scientific editing and manuscript editing services to researchers, authors and Phd students. For more information contact - - orders@enago.com.  NobelPrize REPORTING RESEARCH PUBLISHING RESEARCH IMPORTANT LINKS OUR SERVICES ABOUTUS EnglishEditingContactUs GLOBAL ENAGO Language& Grammar Selecting Journals PhDs & PostdocsServices GuestContributor Product & Service Copy Editing ReviewsServices AboutEnago Academy Journal Guidelines Submitting Manuscripts Substantive Editing Services Ask aQuestion! Manuscripts& Grants Understanding Reviews Publication Support Services Reference Management Understanding Ethics Proofreading Services Figures &Tables Enago Academy offers comprehensive and up-to-date resources for researchers, publishers, editors, and students to learn and sharetheirexperienceaboutresearchandpublishing. Enago AcademyalsoconductsworkshopsprimarilyforESLauthors,early- stageresearchers,andgraduatestudents.Ouradvancedworkshopmodulescatertotheneedsofresearcherswhowanttoknow moreabouttheissuespertinenttosuccessfulpublication.ReadMore Copyright © - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | PrivacyPolicy | Terms & Conditions| ContactUs  https://www.enago.com/academy/nobel-prize-2018/