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Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development

Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development

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Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development

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  1. Fraternity Affiliation Related to Male Spiritual Development Presented by: Jason Goldfarb, Eastern Illinois University Dr. Charles Eberly, Eastern Illinois University

  2. Objectives • To increase participants’ knowledge of the relation of spirituality to fraternity life, and their interaction in higher education. • To understand the impact of spirituality on men's development within fraternity-affiliated and non-affiliated college men. • To increase awareness of leadership training experiences, alcohol use, and hegemonic masculinity as mediating issues in fraternity character development programs, and related college men's beliefs and values. • To suggest possible additions to programming for men’s fraternities on college campuses.

  3. College Males’ Spiritual Development • Buchko (2004) • Prayer occurred more frequently in women’s lives than men’s. • During stressful times, men were found to pray more often than women. • Women, compared to men, were significantly more likely to look to religion for advice or guidance in times of trouble. • Women felt more comfortable and secure than men with the degree to which they incorporated religion into their lives. • Bryant (2007) • Women Reported Higher Levels of: Charitable involvement, Equanimity, Religious skepticism, Religious commitment, Spirituality, Aesthetically-based spiritual experience, Spiritual quest, Compassionate self-concept, Religious/social conservatism, Religious engagement, Social activism, Spiritual/religious growth, and Spiritual struggle • Males Reported Higher Levels of: Spiritual/Religious Growth

  4. Fraternity Membership Most literature shows fraternity membership to have a positive or negative effect on members. Positive Academic (Debard, Lake, & Binder, 2006; Hébert, 2006) Brotherhood (Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1995) Ritual (Brooks, 1922; Callais, 2005; Eberly, 1967; Owen & Owen, 1976) Negative Hazing (Nuwer, 2004) Drinking behaviors (Bartholow, Sher, & Krull, 2003; Caudill, Crosse, Campbell, Howard, Luckey, & Blane, 2006; Kuh & Arnold, 1993) Ethnocentricity (Sindanius, Levin, Van Laar, & Sinclair, 2004)

  5. HERI College Students’ Beliefs and Values Survey 2003 • Aspects of Spirituality • Process of seeking personal authenticity, genuineness, and wholeness • Transcending one’s current locus of centricity (i.e., recognizing concerns beyond oneself) • Developing a greater connectedness to self and others through relationships and community • Deriving meaning, purpose, and direction in life • Openness to exploring a relationship with a higher power or powers that transcend human existence and human knowing (Bryant, 2006, p. 1-2)

  6. College Students’ Beliefs and Values Survey 2003 • Factor Themes • Spirituality - Spirituality, Aesthtically-Based Spiritual Experience, Spiritual Quest, Equanimity, Spiritual/Religious Growth • Religiousness - Religious Engagement, Religious Commitment, Religious/Social Conservatism, Religious Skepticism • Related Qualities - Social Activism, Growth Global/National Understanding, Charitable Involvement, Self-Esteem, Spiritual Distress, Psychological Distress, Growth in Tolerance, Growth in Leadership, Artistic Orientation, Compassionate Self-Concept

  7. Data Analysis: Affiliation, College Students’ Beliefs and Values Cronbach Alpha Scores

  8. Data Analysis: Affiliation, College Students’ Beliefs and Values Cronbach Alpha Scores

  9. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 9.23, P < .005]

  10. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 13.03, P < .001]

  11. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 16.22, P < .001]

  12. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 14.35, P < .001]

  13. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 22.89, P < .001]

  14. Fraternity Membership and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 7.66, P < .01]

  15. Leadership Training Among College Students Leadership Training (Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, & Burkhardt, 2001) Participants that indicated involvement in leadership activities, compared to individuals that did not, reported higher levels of: • Conflict resolution skills • Ability to set goals • Ability to plan and implement programs and activities • Sense of personal ethics • Willingness to take risks • Understanding of leadership theories • Interest in developing leadership in others • Commitment to civic responsibility • Elected or appointed leadership positions • Co-curricular involvement

  16. Fraternity Leadership Training Examples Sigma Alpha Epsilon: John O. Moseley Leadership School • Explore Personal Leadership Abilities • Learn New Leadership Skills • Network with other Undergraduates and Alumni Sigma Phi Epsilon: Ruck Leadership Institute (Stage 4 of Leadership Continuum) • Leadership development • Mentoring • Understand the essential concepts and the role of senior members of the chapter • Balanced Man Ideal of Sound Mind and Sound Body • In-depth, hands-on training on methods to live your best life • Preparing you for lifelong membership through a life of volunteering * Most Fraternities have a leadership component

  17. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 25.52, P < .001]

  18. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 18.58, P < .001]

  19. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 18.33, P < .001]

  20. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 10.12, P ≤ .001]

  21. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 21.05, P < .001]

  22. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 30.23, P < .001]

  23. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 21.23, P < .001]

  24. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 4.86, P < .005]

  25. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 10.67, P < .001]

  26. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 4.85, P < .005]

  27. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 5.31, P ≤ .001]

  28. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 28.75, P < .001]

  29. Leadership Training and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(1, 665) = 12.44, P < .001]

  30. Alcohol Use Among College Students Alcohol Use • The increase of high-risk drinking behaviors among college students has caused concern for institutions of higher education. • Institutional leaders are greatly concerned about student high-risk drinking because it can lead to other high-risk behaviors such as drug use, violence, and academic problems as well as affecting other students indirectly (IHEC, 2003). • Bartholow, Sher, & Krull (2003) discovered in there study a high correlation between Greek involvement and heavy drinking.

  31. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 9.06, P < .001]

  32. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 23.56, P < .001]

  33. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 21.73, P < .001]

  34. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 22.09, P < .001]

  35. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 36.21, P < .001]

  36. Alcohol Use and College Students’ Beliefs and Values Drank Beer [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 20.67, P < .001]

  37. College Men and Hegemonic Masculinity • Developed Scale based of Frank Harris’s Dissertation: Harris, F. (2006). The meaning college men make of masculinities and contextual influences on behaviors, outcomes, and gender environment norms: A grounded theory study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. • Hegemonic Masculinity: “Masculinity, as it has been traditionally defined, hierarchically positions men above women and some men above other men based on race, sexual orientation, class, religion, age, ability, and other social group membership” (Edwards, 2007). • Fraternities are often cited as being organizations that foster hyper-masculine behaviors (DeSanits, 2007).

  38. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 8.82, P < .001]

  39. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 6.36, P < .001]

  40. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 20.33, P < .001]

  41. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 15.91, P < .001]

  42. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 39.52, P < .001]

  43. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 48.52, P < .001]

  44. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 33.30, P < .001]

  45. Hegemonic Masculinity and College Students’ Beliefs and Values [MANOVA, F(3, 663) = 21.22, P < .001]

  46. Discussion Questions • How does a discussion on “Spirituality” fit in public higher education? • How do we make a clear distinction, for our students, between “spirituality” and “religion”? • How can we create a supportive and engaging environment for students to share their spiritual/religious feelings and beliefs? • In what manner is value-based programming based on fraternity rituals offered in undergraduate chapters?

  47. Closing Quote “Beyond and above the present situation in which fraternities find themselves they need not be on the defensive. They have more to say that is positive about their way than do their critics. They can still talk sensible about “the fraternity way.” It is a difficult way, but one in which countless persons still believe. It is measuring up to the test to be selected by fellow students to be pledged. It is an Initiation through a Ritual which is based solely on intellectual, moral, and spiritual pursuits. It is building lasting friendships. It is fidelity to one’s friends. It is doing one’s share in group or corporate effort. The way leads to developing leadership, team play, justifiable pride in victory, and stout heart in defeat” (Brooks, 1922).

  48. Thank you for attending our session Questions… Comments… Concerns…

  49. References Bartholow, B. D., Sher, K. J., & Krull, J. L. (2003). Changes in heavy drinking over the third decade of life as a function of collegiate fraternity and Sorority involvement: A prospective, multilevel analysis. Health Psychology, 22(6), 616-626. Brooks, S. R. (1922). In beta’s broad domain: A collection of the memoirs and written and spoken words of Seth R. Brooks, D.D. Oxford, OH: Beta Theta Pi. Bryant, A. N. (2006). Gender differences in spiritual development during the college years [Electronic version]. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (currently under review). Buchko, K. J. (2004). Religious beliefs and practices of college women as compared to college men [Electronic version]. Journal of College Student Development, 45(1), 89-98. Callais, M. A. (2005). Helping fraternity and sorority members understand ritual. Oracle: The Research of Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 1(1), 32-37. Caudill, B. D., Crosse, S. B., Campbell, B. C., Howard, J., Luckey, B., & Blane, H. T. (2006). High-risk drinking among college fraternity members: A national perspective. Journal of American College Health, 55, 141-155. Cress, C. M., Astin, H. S., Zimmerman-Oster, K., & Burkhardt, J. C. (2001). Developmental outcomes of college students' involvement in leadership activities. Journal of College Student Development, 42, 15-27. DeSantis, A. (2007). Inside Greek u.: Fraternity, sorority, and the pursuit of pleasure, power, and prestige. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky. Eberly, C. G. (1967). The influence of the fraternity ritual. College Student Survey, 1(1), 9-12.

  50. References Edwards, K. E. (2007). “Putting my man face on”: A grounded theory of college men’s gender identity development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. Harris, F. (2006). The meaning college men make of masculinities and contextual influences on behaviors, outcomes, and gender environment norms: A grounded theory study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Hébert, T. P. (2006). Gifted university males in a Greek fraternity: Creating a culture of achievement. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50(1), 26-41. Kuh, G. D., & Arnold, J. C. (1993). Liquid bonding: A cultural analysis of the role of alcohol in fraternity pledgeship. Journal of College Student Development, 34(5), 327-334. Nuwer, H. (2004). The hazing reader. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Owen, K. C., & Owen, S. M. (1976). Toward the year 2000: Perspectives on the American fraternity movement. Fraternity for the Year 2000, 1-24. Sidanius, J., Van Laar, C., Levin, S., & Sinclair, S. (2004). Ethnic enclaves and the Dynamics of social identity on the college campus: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 96-110. The quest: A journey of brotherhood (4th ed.). (1995). Richmond, VA: Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity.