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  1. LECTURE WHAT Is a GAME? DEFINING OUR OBJECT OF STUDY 98765544883218888888888888218888800076543789888888888888888821888888888888888218888888888889

  2. An entertaining exhibit William a. higinbotham (1958) US government nuclear-research facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory I considered the whole idea so obvious that It never occurred to me to think about a patent

  3. IT IS one of the strange ironies of human History, that the games played and developed Over thousands of years have turned out to fit The modern digital computer so well (juul, 2003, p. 44)

  4. Game of contest Game of chance Divine will could be glimpsed through seemingly Random machinations (Poole, 2000, p.174)

  5. civilization Games of strategy seem to have emerged when Societies increased in complexity to such an Extent that there was a need for diplomacy And strategic warfare (sutton-smith) Mancala Wari

  6. Purist, abstract videogames Alexei pajitnov pentominoes

  7. PLAY games That which has neither utility nor truth nor likeness, not yet, In its effects, is harmful, can best be judged by The criterion of the charm that is in it, and by the Pleasure it affords. Such pleasure, entailing as it Does no appreciable good or ill, is play (Plato) Is Furby a videogame? (Aarseth, 2001)

  8. Paidea ludus Roger caillois Physical or mental activity which hAS NO IMMEDIATE USEFUL OBJECTIVE, AND WHOSE ONLY REASON TO BE IS BASED IN THE PLEASURE EXPERIENCED BY THE PLAYER (FRASCA, 1999) Activity organized under a system of rules That defines a victory or a defeat, a gain or A loss (FRASCA, 1999)

  9. Ludus are hard-coded within the program: the Program includes a ludus rule and it will tell The player is she succeeded or not at the end Of the session. However, the same mission Based simulator could also be used for Paidea: the player could simply not follow The rule and would just play around with the Airpolane … it is the player not the designer Who decides how to use the toy, a game, or Videogame. The designer must suggest a set Of rules, but the player always has the final Decision (frasca, 2001, p.13-14)

  10. Jean piaget (1951) unbounded Rule-based 0-2 years 7+ years ‘Socialisation’ Kinaesthetic games 2-7 years Symbolic role-play “who won?”

  11. Saint-omer (1168) pilloried bale (1386) Eyes out! Amsterdam (15th century) Anomic and impoverished precisely because Games have been torn from their organic place At the heart of the community and neatly Cordoned off (Huizinga)

  12. What are the properties of a game? How do we interact with them as players? What is the relationship between play & work? The game The player The world

  13. games A free activity standing quite consciously Outside ‘ordinary’ life as being ‘not serious’ But at the same time absorbing the player Intensely and utterly … It proceeds within its Own proper boundaries of time and space According to fixed rules and in an orderly Manner (Huizinga, 1950, p.13)

  14. The magic cricle “all play moves and has its being within a Playground marked off beforehand Materially or ideally, deliberately or as a Matter of course … the arena, the card- Table, the magic circle, the temple, the stage, the screen, the tennis court, the Court of justice, etc. … are all in form and Function play-grounds, I.e., forbidden Spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, Within which special rules obtain. All are Temporary worlds in within the ordinary World, dedicated to the performance of An act apart.” (johan huizinga, 1955, HOMO LUDENS, p.10)

  15. Agôn (competition) Alea (chance) Roger caillois (1958) LES JEUX ET LES HOMMES mimicry (simulation) ilinx (vertigo) IT IS A QUESTION OF SURRENDERING TO A KIND OF SPASM, SEIZURE, OR SHOCK WHICH DESTROYS REALITY WITH A SOVEREIGN BRUSQUENESS (P. 23)

  16. CONTINGENT COMBINATIONS chance vertigo Entranced by the question of where the ball will Stop or what card will turn up (P. 73) fundamental COMBINATIONS chance competition Dominoes, Backgammon & card games

  17. 0 X X X 0 0 0 X X 0 0 ? X X X X 0 X ? 0 X Game design = designing rules • Number of people • type of interactions • succession of advancement • point system • game environment (board/field/level/world) X

  18. interface theme Procedures ‘things to do’ components ‘with tools’ environment Aki jarvinen (2003)

  19. Star wars chess

  20. components Source of identification Provide challenges

  21. environments Boards/fields (static individual environments) 2) worlds

  22. (aarseth, 2003) vagrant Omni-present topological geometrical

  23. themes

  24. Jesper juul (2002) The open and the closed progression Discover (game as unchartered territory) (LeBlank)

  25. Games do have something in common, that we Can talk about the borders between games and What is not games, and that it makes sense to Look at computer games as being the latest Development in a history of games that spans Millennia (Juul, 2003, P. 43)