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Biosafety Training

Biosafety Training

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Biosafety Training

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  1. Biosafety Training University of Ottawa *Office of Risk Management Human Resources - Occupational Health Disability & Leave v0501

  2. Biosafety Outline • Introduction • Laboratory Associated Infections • Blood-borne Pathogens • Classification of Biohazards • Infection/Biohazard Control • Spill Response • Biomedical Waste • Regulations

  3. What is Biosafety? • Measures employed when handling biohazardous materials to avoid infecting oneself, others or the environment. • Achieved through • Engineering Controls • Administrative Controls • Practices and Procedures • Personal Protective Equipment

  4. What is a Biohazard? A potential hazard to humans, animals or the environment caused by a biological organism, or by material produced by such an organism Examples; • Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and their toxins. • Blood and body fluids, as well as tissues from humans and animals. • Transformed cell lines and certain types of nucleic acids .

  5. Who’s Responsible, who are the Stakeholders? INTERNALLY • Vice-President (Research) • Committees • University Services (ORM, HR, PRS, PS)* • Deans, Chairs, Principal Investigators, Employees, Students • Manager of Biological Containment Suite EXTERNALLY • Health Canada • Canadian Food Inspection Agency • Transport Canada • Ontario Ministry of Labour • Emergency Response Personnel • Suppliers & Contractors • Community

  6. Key Services • Office of Risk Management • Training • Interface with Regulatory Bodies • Biosafety Program • certifications • training • procedures • inspections • contingency planning • accident/incident follow-up

  7. Key Services • HR (Occupational Health, Disability and Leave) • Medical surveillance • Immunizations • Medical Follow-up • Interface with Workplace Safety and Insurance Board

  8. Why are we concerned about biohazardous materials? • Potential for acquiring a laboratory-associated infection (LAI) • Contamination of the environment • Contamination of research • Public perception*

  9. Laboratory Associated Infections • Percutaneous inoculation • Inhalation of aerosols • Contact of mucous membranes • Ingestion Infection Source Susceptible Host • Immune system • Vaccination status • Age • Cultures and stocks • Research animals • Specimens • Items contaminated with above Route of Transmission

  10. LAI’s • Only 20% causative or defined event • 80% of which are caused by human error • 20% are caused by equipment failure • Top 4 accidents resulting in infection • Spillages & splashes • Needle and syringe • Sharp object, broken glass • Bite or scratch from animals or ectoparasites http://www.weizmann.ac.il/safety/bio2.html

  11. LAI’s

  12. Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) • Sources • Blood • Semen • Vaginal Secretions • Body Fluids • Cerebrospinal • Amniotic • Synovial • Tissue Cultures • Organ Cultures • Infected Experimental Animals

  13. Risk of Exposure • Pathogen involved • Type of body fluid • Route of exposure • Duration of exposure • Volume of blood involved in exposure • Concentration of virus at time of exposure • PPE worn

  14. Specific Examples of Bloodborne Pathogens Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV

  15. Issues to Consider • Symptoms • Mode of transmission • Incubation period • Survival outside host • Communicability • Immunization • Prophylaxis / Treatment

  16. If An Exposure Occurs (or the possibility of exposure) • Initiate first aid • Notify your supervisor / designated person • Report to hospital emergency department or University’s Health Services • Report incident to OHDL Occupational Health, Disability and Leave Office telephone ext. 1472 http://www.uottawa.ca/services/hr/frames.html

  17. Universal Precautions • Minimum standard of practice for preventing the transmission of BBP Includes: - Education - Hand washing - Wearing protective barriers - Use safe work practices If samples cannot be guaranteed non-infective …… treat as infectious!

  18. Classification of Biohazards • Conventional Agents • Unconventional Agents • Recombinant DNA • Tissue Culture • Animal Work • Anatomical Specimens Class D, division 3 of WHMIS (Poisonous and Infectious Material - Biohazardous Infectious Material)

  19. Classification of Biohazards _ • As the level  so does ; • the risk of the organism to humans, animals, plants and/or the environment • the procedural and facility requirements • the level of containment required • the degree of protection for personnel, the environment and the community. BSL 4 BSL 3 BSL 2 BSL 1 _

  20. Conventional Agents Unlikely to cause disease in healthy workers or animals Rarely cause serious human or animal disease May cause serious disease Likely to cause very serious disease

  21. Unconventional Pathogens • TSE prion diseases; lethal transmissible neurodegenerative conditions • Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Variant C-J Disease, Mad Cow Disease, Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease. • Resistant to destruction by procedures that normally inactivate viruses. • Contact ORM to assess requirements (containment, procedures, waste disposal, etc.)

  22. Recombinant DNA • Canada: Level of risk depends on source of DNA, vector and host. • The Biosafety Committee will assist the investigator in this determination. Genetic Engineering = in vitro incorporation of genetic material from one cell into another

  23. Tissue Culture • Have the potential to contain pathogenic organisms • In general; Human & non-human primate, and mycoplasma-containing cell lines Level 2 Level 1 Others A detailed risk assessment should be undertaken when using a new cell line.

  24. Animal Work • Animals can harbour infectious organisms (naturally or introduced) • Level dependent on type of work being conducted. • Special Animal Care training is required for all personnel working with animals. • All work involving animal use must receive prior approval from the Animal Care Committee

  25. Anatomical Specimens • All specimens should be considered infectious due to potential presence of infectious agents • Important to consider the type of specimen • blood, organs, tissues • Spinal sample, brain tissue • From infectious patient • In general Level 2 but it depends on the nature of the work.

  26. Infection/Biohazard Control Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Practices and Procedures Personal Protective Equipment

  27. Engineering Controls • Technology based, reduce or eliminate exposure to hazards by changes at the source of the hazard. • Containment: • Primary vs Secondary • Containment levels

  28. Primary Containment • First line of defence. • Ensures protection of personnel and immediate environment from exposure to the infectious agent. • ‘Protective envelope’ that encapsulates the infectious agent or animal. • Petrie dish, vial, stoppered bottle…. • Biological safety cabinets, glove boxes and animal caging equipment…. Effectiveness of control is based on the integrity of the containment.

  29. Secondary Containment • Protects the environment external to the laboratory from exposure. • Includes facility design and operational practices.

  30. Biosafety Containment Levels • Containment Levels similar to Risk Levels. • Biohazards Committee will evaluate the research proposals to ensure adequate containment . • Level 1 • Level 2 • Level 3 • Level 4

  31. Level 1 • Basic laboratory • Requires no special design features • Biosafety cabinets are not required and work may be performed on the open bench.

  32. Level 2 • Clinical, diagnostic, research and teaching facilities with level 2 agents. • Requires a class I or class II biological safety cabinet if any potential for aerosol or splash exists. • An emergency plan for handling spills must be developed. • Access should be controlled.

  33. Level 3 • Specialized design and construction • primary barriers to protect the individual • secondary barriers to protect the environment • All staff must undergo special training on the agents being used, PPE, equipment, waste management as well as practices and procedures above and beyond the scope of this course.

  34. Level 4 • Only one level 4 facility in Canada (Canadian Centre for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg, Man.) • Design specifications are extremely stringent, worker is completely isolated from infectious material.

  35. Biological Safety Cabinets • Effective means of physical containment for biological agents, especially when aerosols are generated. • HEPA filters remove particles (min 0.3 microns) with 99.97% efficiency. • There are 3 main classes of cabinets (I, II, III) which provide various levels of protection.

  36. Biological Safety Cabinets VS • Laminar flow hoods • NOT biological safety cabinets • Vertical or horizontal laminar flow • HEPA filtered air (intake) • product protection only • Biological Safety Cabinet • HEPA filtered laminar air flow and • exhaust • personnel, environment & often • product protection

  37. Working safely in a BSC Before using the cabinet: • Ensure BSC is certified • Turn off UV lamp; turn on fluorescent lamp • Disinfect work surfaces with appropriate disinfectant • Place essential items inside cabinet • Allow the blower to run for 5-10 min before work

  38. Working safely in a BSC During use: • Ensure material and equipment is placed near the back of the hood, especially aerosol-generating equipment. Do not block any vents. • Use techniques that reduce splatter and aerosols. • General work flow should be from clean to contaminated areas. • Minimize movement so as not to impede air flow. • Open flame in BSC’s is controversial.

  39. Working safely in a BSC

  40. Working safely in a BSC After completion of work: • Leave blower on at least 5 minutes to purge cabinet • Remove and decontaminate equipment and materials • Disinfect cabinet surfaces • Turn off blower and fluorescent lamp, turn on UV lamp

  41. Working safely in a BSC Maintenance: • Twice daily - Work surfaces wiped down • Weekly - UV lamp should be wiped clean* • Monthly - All vertical surfaces wiped down • Annually - UV lamp intensity verified. - Decontamination with formaldehyde gas (ORM) - Certification (ORM)

  42. Administrative Controls Program based, information and methods to minimize risk of exposure. • Risk assessment • Medical Surveillance • Training/Education • Resources • Inspections • Signs & Labeling

  43. Administrative Controls Risk Assessment • Will determine type of containment, procedures, and safety equipment required • Responsibility of users, additional assistance is available from ORM • Consider areas such as; experimental design, procedures to be employed and personal experience/knowledge, etc. * http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/ols-bsl/lbg-ldmbl/pdf/lbg-3e-draft.pdf

  44. Administrative Controls Risk Assessment: Know your Agent • Know and understand the various characteristics of the agent(s) you are working with. • This information is available from; • MSDS’s • Suppliers or manufacturers • Example

  45. Administrative Controls Medical Surveillance Training & Education • Lab specific policies and procedures • Biosafety training Resources • ORM web site, Biosafety page • Faculty web sites • Biosafety Manual • Training Videos

  46. Administrative Controls Inspections • Routine self-inspections • Biosafety Inspection Checklist available on-line • In addition, ORM, EHSOs and OH&S will inspect labs to ensure compliance with regulations/ guidelines and provide feedback.

  47. Administrative Controls Signs & Labeling • Biohazard warning signs must be posted on doors to rooms where biohazardous materials are used. • Biohazard labels should be placed on containers, equipment and storage units used with biological agents.

  48. Practices and Procedures • General Safety Guidelines • Good Microbiological Practice • Handwashing • Specific Procedures • Centrifuges • Needles & Syringes and other sharps • Pipettes • Blenders, Grinders, Sonicators & Lyophilizers • Inoculation Loops • Cryostats

  49. General Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Mostly common sense, but you must understand the hazards you face in the laboratory and be adequately trained to deal with them. • Basic must knows for all labs. • Examples? b i o s a f e t y