National Workshop on ‘Auto Fuel Policy – Way Forward’: November 20, 2006 AIR QUALITY MONITORING, EMISSION INVENTORY AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES FOR INDIAN CITIES: CURRENT STATUS Central Pollution Control Board Delhi
Presentation includes: • Background • Overview of Project Status • Expected Outcome • Project Schedule
BACKGROUND Auto Fuel Policy – Recommendations • EURO III equivalent norms – April 01, 2005 (11 cities); April 01, 2010 (entire country) • EURO IV equivalent norms –April 01, 2010(11 cities) • Schedule for introduction of EURO III (entire country) and EURO IV (11 cities) from April 01, 2010 to be reviewed in the year 2006
Auto Fuel Policy – Observations • No reliable emission inventories available • Necessary to undertake real life emission inventory and source apportionment studies based on realistic emission factors and vehicle utilization factors • Integration of dispersion and receptor (CMB8) models for assessment of source contribution in ambient air • Studies may be assigned to national research institutions having requisite experience and other resources
IOC and other oil companies took initiative and earmarked Rs.13.5 crores to execute various studies • Source apportionment studies were planned for assessing contribution of various source categories in the ambient air in 06 cities (Delhi, Bangalore, Pune, Mumbai, Chennai & Kanpur) • Focus on PM10 (major concern in most of the urban areas, critical, secondary formation) • Steering & Technical Committees were constituted – co-ordination by IOC
IOC signed Memoranda of Collaboration (MoC) • NEERI (SA in Delhi) – August 2003 • ARAI (EF for vehicles) – August 2003 • TERI (SA in Bangalore) – December 2004 • ARAI (SA in Pune) – January 2005 • Till October 2004, AAQM had commenced only at one location (out of 10) in Delhi. EF study had progressed. No progress at other cities. • On request of oil & automobile industries, MoEF agreed to get SA studies done under its guidance – October 2004
Although the studies had made little progress at that stage, in order to ensure greater credibility, co-ordination by MoEF was agreed upon • Reconstitution of • Technical Committee – June 30, 2005 • Steering Committee – August 01, 2005 • However, in the interim period, CPCB worked on evolving an appropriate common methodology so that results from six studies could be comparable. • Technical Committee met onJuly 29, 2005; October 20, 2005; March 24, 2006; and August 21, 2006 and Steering Committee met onOctober 25, 2005.
CPCB on reviewing the earlier scope/methodology found that the same was inadequate to meet study objectives • Major changes required in the existing methodology • Preparation of detailed emission inventory in the zone of influence around each monitoring location • AQM – Instrumentation (speciation samplers), frequency of monitoring, addition of PM2.5 (limited), detailed chemical characterization of PM (markers) considering requirement of CMB 8 • Need for separate studies on source profiling
Revision in the scope of work and MoCs signed by IOC for SA in three cities; new studies on development of source profiling for vehicular and other sources; need for additional financial resources • Common methodology was approved by Technical Committee (October 20, 2005) and Steering Committee (October 25, 2005). • A document ‘Conceptual Guidelines and Common Methodology for Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory & Source Apportionment Studies for Indian Cities’is made available on CPCB’s website. • Draft guidelines on Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for sampling and analysis prepared and circulated to project executing agencies
Executing institutes for SA in remaining three cities were identified, proposals scrutinized, financial implications worked out. • Total funds requirement Rs.20.5 crores against Rs.13.5 crores allocated by oil companies resulting in need for additional financial resources of Rs.7.0 crores • MoEF decided that additional fund requirement would be met by CPCB out of its Plan allocations • As per decision of Steering Committee, IOC signed revised MoCs with NEERI, TERI and ARAI. Signing of new MoC with ARAI for Source Profiling (vehicles) expected to be signed by end of November. • CPCB signed MoCs in respect of SA for Kanpur, Chennai & Mumbai with IITK, IITM & NEERI respectively and Source Profiling (other than vehicles) with IITB • First installment of funds released.
Project Institute Approx. Cost including Service Tax (In Lakhs) MoC Signed By Signing Date SA for Delhi NEERI 297.7 IOC Aug 2003 (earlier) Feb 2005 (Revised) SA for Bangalore TERI 209.6 IOC Dec 2004(earlier) Feb 2006(Revised) SA for Pune ARAI 204.5 IOC Jan 2005(earlier) Feb 2006(Revised) SA for Mumbai NEERI 200.0 CPCB Feb 2006 SA for Chennai IITM 202.97 CPCB Mar 2006 SA for Kanpur IITK 200.52 CPCB Feb 2006 EF for Vehicles ARAI 386.56 IOC Aug 2003 SP (vehicles) ARAI 172.36 IOC - SP (other sources) IITB and NEERI 179.30 CPCB Mar 2006 Total 2053.54 - - OVERVIEW OF PROJECT STATUS
Source Apportionment Studies • Equipment procurement • Speciation samplers – procured by ARAI & TERI; Orders placed by others (expected by November) • Other sampling & analytical instruments (OC/EC analyzers, GC, CO analyzers, etc.) – already available/procured • Commencement of AAQM • Monitoring locations finalized • Expected by November/Early December 2006 • Emission Inventory • Data collection through secondary sources/ primary surveys is in progress
Emission Factor (Vehicles) • 80% of the work completed. Remaining work expected to be completed by January 2007. • First set of EF would be available by January 2007. • An Expert Group has been reviewing if additional mass emission tests considering more number and/or type of vehicles are required for further improving the EF. • Source Profiling (Vehicular Sources) • MOC is yet to be signed • Source Profiling (Non-Vehicular Sources) • Primary surveys conducted in all the six project cities and source categories finalized.
EXPECTED OUTCOME Would answer many questions related to Air Quality Management in Urban Areas: Emission Inventory (EI) • Emission Factors for Vehicles • Database on refined EI (City Level) • Spatial as well as temporal variations • Contribution of various source categories (transport, industrial, commercial, etc.) as well as sub-categories (diesel/gasoline vehicles,two/ three/four wheelers, etc.) • Future projections
Database on Air Quality • Air quality with regard to large number of pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SPM, NOx, SO2, CO, HC, PAHs, Benzene, Aldehyde, etc.) • Spatial (Land-use based) and temporal (seasonal) variations in air quality • Variations in air quality with respect to activities & meteorological settings • Chemical characterization of PM10 & PM2.5 • Air Quality Profile of cities • Co-relation of pollutants (SPM vs PM10, PM10 vs PM2.5, etc.) • Assessment of Air Quality Monitoring Programme
Air Quality Management Strategies • Source apportionment (contribution) of various sources for PM10 & PM2.5 • Evaluation of control options, based on cost- effective analysis • Assessment of impact on air quality due to implementation of short/long term measures • Preparation of city-specific action plans with short & long term measures • Review of norms (fuel quality, vehicle exhaust, industries, etc.) and implementation schedule
Other benefits • Profiles of sources (vehicular & non-vehicular) • Development of tested scientific approach for handling of air quality management issues • Data generated could be used for further studies (e.g. health studies) • Capacity building
PROJECT SCHEDULE • Results based one season analysis – February/March 2007 • Consideration by Technical Committee –March 2007 • International Peer Review – April2007 • Consideration by Steering Committee and intimation from MoEF to MoP&NG –May 2007 • Intimation of final outcome based on three season study to MoP&NG – December2007