Integrated Interventions for Addressing Roma Living Conditions Kosuke Anan Social Development Specialist, World Bank Disclaimer: This presentation reflects the views of the presenter and not necessarily of the World Bank.
Main Take-Away Messages • 2 reasons why housing interventions need to be integrated: • “Adequate housing” means more than just four walls and a roof • Interventions need to address root causes (not only symptoms) • Housing interventions could have a greater and more sustainable results when integrated with other interventions • Participation helps find effective mix of interventions • EU Funding can be used to support integrated & participatory interventions • WB can support facilitation of participatory project management
The Role of EU Funds in Roma Housing Programs EU Funds can be used to provide a range of interventions in an integrated manner to address specific challenges faced by Roma communities. Examples*: • ERDF: Infrastructure investments (e.g. access roads, community space, water, sewerage, waste treatment plants, etc.). • ESF: Human capital investments (e.g. capacity building, training, education, facilitation of entrepreneurship, etc.). *Presenter’s over-simplification
What do they have to do with housing? Adequate housing “includes: • Legal security of tenure; • Availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure; • Affordability; • Habitability ; • Accessibility; • Location; and • Cultural adequacy.” (According to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Source: UN-OHCHR)
Roma Living Conditions Bulgaria Czech Republic Urban (98%) Rural (2%) Urban (52%) Rural (48%) Hungary Urban (34%) Rural (66%) Romania Urban (39%) Rural (61%) Source: EU/UNDP/WB Regional Roma Survey
Reality • Affordability: without sufficient income, residents cannot pay rent, loans, or utility fees need employment / income • Social integration: does not happen over night. Different rules, customs, interaction modes generate frictions need acclimatization • Organization: maintenance of common facilities and space needs collective action need capacity • Sustainability is risked if above aspects are not addressed.
Worst Case Scenario • Influx of new residents overcrowding / concentration • Inability to pay utility fees disruption of services and accumulation of debts • Inability to maintain housing deterioration of habitability • Inability to access basic social services & opportunities segregation Back to inadequate housing conditions Perpetuation & reinforcement of marginalization and poverty
Then, what could be done to enhance the effectiveness of housing interventions?(1)
Then, what could be done to enhance the effectiveness of housing interventions?(2)
Integrated Intervention Example (1) : Grazia Deledda Project (I, II, III) in Naples, Italy • Transitional social housing at free of cost • Information and awareness programs • Support to education for children and adults (literacy) • Cooperation with local health services • Employmentskill building (construction, cooking, hospitality) • Cultural Mediation (codes of conduct—e.g. no begging by children, cleaning duties, garbage collection) • Inclusion activities (parent engagement in school, social activities) • After 12 months, families are expected to have found a job and to be able to find rentals on the private market or through social housing programs. • About 39 families supported at a time (about 2 million euro in investments)
Integrated Intervention Example (2) : HOPE – Social Housing with Participation and Empowerment in Kyustendil, Bulgaria (ADRA) • Social housing (community participation in construction) • Vocational training/apprenticeship in construction work • Municipality provided land, connection to water and electricity • Second chance education for adults • Residents pay monthly rent (@5 euro / month and utility costs) • Requirements for residents: (a) children should go to school, (b) parents should actively look for jobs, (c ) abide by the code of conducts • Housekeeper (elected by tenants) collects rents • Community commission monitors eligibility of residents • About 40 households supported (project cost so far: 6,000 euro/household)
Good Practices and Lessons Learned • Trust (distrust by beneficiaries impede uptake) Strong presence of local organizations is helpful Include Roma in decision-making process Undertake prior information and awareness campaign • Selection of beneficiaries/tenants A clear and fair selection mechanism is needed. • Continuity and Cohesiveness (fragmented funding sources) Link with local development plans • Local capacity Provide extensive support to assess needs, develop, implement, and monitor projects
Now, how could interventions be integrated? • How do we know what is needed? • Who knows what is needed? • Who knows why? • Who knows what can be done, affordable? • Who knows what the bottlenecks are? • Who knows what can be maintained? The targeted people themselves! Their participation is key to the success of integrated interventions.
Benefits of Participatory Approach: • It not only increases the ownership and relevance of projects by identifying stakeholders’ priorities and their ability to maintain/operate, • But also contributes to their social inclusion through empowerment.
Participatory Approach in EU Funding Community Led Local Development (CLLD): • EC is introducing a Community Led Local Development approach to Structural and Investment Funds • The idea is to allow connected and integrated use of the Funds to implement integrated and multi-sectoral area-based local development.
Support Agents To help local communities develop and implement integrated projects through participatory processes, external support agents are required to provide high quality facilitation and assistance in the following: A) Outreach, social mobilization and facilitation “Hand-holding” support for local communities (1) Sensitization—community outreach (2) Needs assessment, problem ranking and local initiative identification—identification of top 4-5 priority needs (3) Community mobilization—local project committees (in EU jargon, “local action groups” ) (4) Planning and design of investment projects—project proposal and applying for (EU) funding, (5) Implementation—training and support on (e.g. financial literacy, procurement, public consultations, grievance mechanisms, M&E, etc.) and ongoing technical implementation support B) Preparation of technical documents for local investments (1) Conversion of the priority needs into 2-3 key investment plans in the form of technical project documents (feasibility studies, technical designs) (2) Costing out of these investment plans, including recurrent O&M costs to the communities (3) Provision of routine technical audits and implementation support C) Coordination support for information and policy between local units and national agencies and inter-governmental line ministries (1) ensure sufficient information flows (2) sector and institutional level representation for sub project approval and clearances (3) dynamic learning environment The World Bank has a vast experience and know-how of assisting Community Driven Development through creation of such support agents.
Post Script FYI:Alternative Measures Habitability, affordability, and accessibility (coverage) of housing could also be addressed by: • Improvement/retrofitting/expansion of houses owned/possessed by Roma. This could be done through: • Home improvement loans/ vouchers • Micro-finance • Training and assistance for self-construction The impacts of these measures can be enhanced through integration with other interventions.
Thank you for your attention. köszönöm