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Welding Metallurgy 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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Welding Metallurgy 2

Welding Metallurgy 2

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Welding Metallurgy 2

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  1. Welding Metallurgy 2

  2. Welding Metallurgy 2 • Learning Activities • View Slides; • Read Notes, • Listen to lecture • Do on-line workbook • Do homework • Lesson Objectives • When you finish this lesson you will understand: • The various region of the weld where liquid does not form • Mechanisms of structure and property changes associated with these regions Keywords: Heat affected zone, Base metal, Solutionizing treatment, Aging, welding procedure, heat input, Hydrogen cracking, Carbon equivalent, Lamellar Tearing, Reheat Cracking, Knife-line attack,

  3. Heat Affected Zone Welding Concerns

  4. Heat Affected Zone Welding Concerns • Changes in Structure Resulting • in Changes in Properties • Cold Cracking Due to Hydrogen

  5. Look At Two Types of Alloy Systems

  6. Cold Worked Alloy Without Allotropic Transformation Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  7. Welding • Precipitation • Hardened Alloys • Without Allotropic • Phase Changes • Welded In: • Full Hard Condition • Solution Annealed Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  8. Annealed upon Cooling

  9. Precipitation Hardened Alloy Welded in Full Hard Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  10. Precipitation Hardened Alloys Welded in Solutioned Condition Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  11. Questions? • Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): • Precipitation hardened austenitic stainless steel is used for high strength applications like rocket components etc. Reviewing the various procedures for welding precipitation hardened steels, what procedure would you recommend? Does it make any difference that this is austenitic stainless steel and not just plain carbon steel?

  12. Steel Alloys With Allotropic Transformation Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  13. Introductory Welding Metallurgy, AWS, 1979

  14. Questions? • Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.): • As we saw, the cooling rate can depend upon the preheat and the heat input. Many codes actually specify the range of heat inputs that can be used to weld certain materials. We had an equation to determine the heat input before. What is it? What processes have the highest Heat Inputs? The lowest?

  15. Cracking in Welds Hydrogen Cracking • Hydrogen cracking, also called cold cracking, requires all three of these factors • Hydrogen • Stress • Susceptible microstructure (high hardness) • Occurs below 300°C • Prevention by • Preheat slows down the cooling rate; this can help avoid martensite formation and supplies heat to diffuse hydrogen out of the material • Low-hydrogen welding procedure

  16. Dickinson

  17. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Why Preheat? • Preheatreduces the temperature differential between the weld region and the base metal • Reduces the cooling rate, which reduces the chance of forming martensite in steels • Reduces distortion and shrinkage stress • Reduces the danger of weld cracking • Allows hydrogen to escape

  18. Steel Using Preheat to Avoid Hydrogen Cracking • If the base material is preheated, heat flows more slowly out of the weld region • Slower cooling rates avoid martensite formation • Preheat allows hydrogen to diffuse from the metal T base Cooling rate µ (T - Tbase)3 Cooling rate µ (T - Tbase)2 T base

  19. Steel Interaction of Preheat and Composition CE = %C + %Mn/6 + %(Cr+Mo+V)/5 + %(Si+Ni+Cu)/15 • Carbon equivalent (CE) measures ability to form martensite, which is necessary for hydrogen cracking • CE < 0.35 no preheat or postweld heat treatment • 0.35 < CE < 0.55 preheat • 0.55 < CE preheat and postweld heat treatment • Preheat temp. ­ as CE ­ and plate thickness ­

  20. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Why Post-Weld Heat Treat? • The fast cooling rates associated with welding often produce martensite • During postweld heat treatment, martensite is tempered (transforms to ferrite and carbides) • Reduces hardness • Reduces strength • Increases ductility • Increases toughness • Residual stress is also reduced by the postweld heat treatment

  21. Steel Postweld Heat Treatment and Hydrogen Cracking • Postweld heat treatment (~ 1200°F) tempers any martensite that may have formed • Increase in ductility and toughness • Reduction in strength and hardness • Residual stress is decreased by postweld heat treatment • Rule of thumb: hold at temperature for 1 hour per inch of plate thickness; minimum hold of 30 minutes

  22. Questions?

  23. Base Metal Welding Concerns

  24. Cracking in Welds Lamellar Tearing • Occurs in thick plate subjected to high transverse welding stress • Related to elongated non-metallic inclusions, sulfides and silicates, lying parallel to plate surface and producing regions of reduced ductility • Prevention by • Low sulfur steel • Specify minimum ductility levels in transverse direction • Avoid designs with heavy through-thickness direction stress

  25. Improve Cleanliness Improve through thickness properties Buttering

  26. Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Multipass Welds • Heat from subsequent passes affects the structure and properties of previous passes • Tempering • Reheating to form austenite • Transformation from austenite upon cooling • Complex Microstructure

  27. Steel Multipass Welds • Exhibit a range of microstructures • Variation of mechanical properties across joint • Postweld heat treatment tempers the structure • Reduces property variations across the joint

  28. Cracking in Welds Reheat Cracking • Mo-V and Mo-B steels susceptible • Due to high temperature embrittlement of the heat-affected zone and the presence of residual stress • Coarse-grained region near fusion line most susceptible • Prevention by • Low heat input welding • Intermediate stress relief of partially completed welds • Design to avoid high restraint • Restrict vanadium additions to 0.1% in steels • Dress the weld toe region to remove possible areas of stress concentration

  29. HAZ Weld Knife-line attack Stainless Steel Knife-Line Attack in the HAZ • Cr23C6 precipitate in HAZ • Band where peak temperature is 800-1600°F • Can occur even in stabilized grades • Peak temperature dissolves titanium carbides • Cooling rate doesn’t allow them to form again