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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

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  1. Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan Phil Vandenberg www.azerb.com

  2. Overview • General Information • Past conflict • Ceasefire • Current situation www.azerb.com

  3. Nagorno-Karabakh (General Info) • “Mountainous Black Garden” – Azeri Artsakh “Manly Sak” - Armenian • Rugged region • Mountain ranges reaching an altitude of 3,700 m (12,000 ft.) • Higher elevations have little or no vegetation • Mild lower climates with dense vegetation Nagorno-Karabakhregion www.azerb.com

  4. General Info Cont. • Population of about 130,000 • 4,400 square kilometers • Economy is based mostly on copper mining and agriculture • Cattle • Vineyards • Orchards • Wheat • Veggies • Cotton

  5. History of Nagorno-Karabakh • Ethnic Armenian “time bomb” region created by Stalin • Incorporated into Azerbaijan in 1921 by Stalin • Problems began immediately • Major conflicts in the late 1940s • Armenia proposed annexing Karabakh but was denied • Repatriated Armenians forced around 100,000 Azeris out of Armenia

  6. Recent History • February 1988 – Armenia requested that Karabakh be transferred to Armenian control (REJECTED) • Azerbaijan sends request to Moscow to repatriate ethnic Azeris and Armenians on both sides • Over 200,000 Azeris living in Armenia are forced out of country • End of February 1988 – violence erupts between Azeris and Armenians in city of Sumgait (Soviet troops called in)

  7. More Recent History • November 1988 – more violence • Tens of thousands expelled from both countries • Massacres on both sides • Break-up of Soviet Union in 1991 • Full-scale war breaks loose

  8. Khojaly • About 7,000 citizens • Early 1992 the city was attacked by Armenian troops for several weeks • February 25, 1992- Armenian troops forced citizens to escape the city • Troops positioned in hills shot at fleeing Azeris www.azerb.com

  9. Khojaly continued • Estimated 450 – 1,000 men, women and children slaughtered • Over 1,200 taken hostage • Town burned • Date was 4-year anniversary of Armenian massacres in Sumgait http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html

  10. Ceasefire • May 1994 • At time of ceasefire: • Over 20,000 dead • Over 1,000,000 refugees • Estimated $60 billion in damages • Russia helping to mediate • Both countries observing… mostly • Armenian troops occupy Karabakh and non-Armenian areas around it Image from: http://newhouse.syr.edu/alexia/archives/1998/bradner/bradportnew18.html

  11. Images of Refugees http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html

  12. Current Situation • Karabakh Armenians have declared independence • Not actually recognized by any other countries • Goal is to join Armenia • Nagorno-Karabakh government controls about 14,000 km², including a “corridor” to Armenia

  13. http://fismailzade.web.wesleyan.edu/Karabakh.html

  14. No Man’s Land • 1 Km wide expanse between Azeri and Karabakh-Armenian forces • Networks of wire fencing and minefields • Well-dug, concrete-reinforced bunkers and trenches • Excavated tank ditches • Regular exchange of sniper fire

  15. Solutions • Honor Karabakh’s claim to independence and leave them alone • Continue fighting and hope to win all land back (or even just the land outside of Karabakh) • Cut deal with Armenia giving them most or all of Karabakh and a gateway to it No matter what the solution, refugees need to be housed more suitably

  16. Works Cited • “Azerbaijan – International Disputes.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com • Google Images. http://images.google.com • “Karabakh – Heartland of Azerbaijan.” Yusif Akhundov. http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html • “Karabakh – Tragedy of the 20th Century.” Fariz’s Home Page. http://fismailzade.web.wesleyan.edu/index.html • “Nagorno Karabakh.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com • “The United States and Nagorno-Karabakh.” Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of State Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. http://www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/fs/13502.htm