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Unit One - Computers and Information Society

Unit One - Computers and Information Society

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Unit One - Computers and Information Society

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  1. Unit One - Computers and Information Society • Basic technology background - literacy • Hardware • Software • Networking • Users and Experts that use technology • Communication of information – PC skills • File management • E-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) use • Word processing • Desktop publishing

  2. Introduction • Card (front) • Name & section/row/seat • Current date • Special interest (optional) • Career interest • Computer background • Card (back) • Expectations (paragraph) • Special concerns

  3. Introduction • Course Goals (Objectives) • Technology & computing literacy - various levels • Develop problem solving skills - think logically • Computer as a tool - think of the computer as a tool to help you solve problems, similar to a calculator • Tactics to do well in the course • Prepare for class/exams (read text/study notes) • Participate in class (attend/take notes/ask questions) • Time on the computer

  4. Introduction • Information Society • What is it? • Compared to Agriculture Society Industrial Society • Jobs that use information • What is a computer? • What is a computer system? • What is data / information?

  5. Data and Information • Input --> Process --> Output • Save (data/information) • Data is converted (processed) into information, raw facts to organized facts. • Typically store data - used to produce information

  6. Computer Systems • Hardware (Equipment) • Software (Instructions) • User/Experts (People)

  7. Networks • What is a network? • LAN (local area network) • WAN (wide area network) Global Village • Internet & Information Services • on-line & off-line • download & upload • Private WAN

  8. Networks • Physical connection (ex: NIACC network - basics) • Communication software • Electronic Mail (E-mail)

  9. Software • What is software? What are programs? • Two general categories of software • System • Operating System • Utilities • Applications • Packaged programs • Productivity packages • Designed software • Games • Others

  10. Hardware of a computer system • Input Devices • Output Devices • System Unit • Processor (CPU) • Memory (main memory or primary memory) • RAM (random access memory) • ROM (read only memory) • Electronic Bus (Relationship between processor and memory) • Expansion slots • Ports (peripheral devices)

  11. Hardware of a computer system • Input Devices • Output Devices • System Unit • Storage • Hard drive (drive c: usually) • Floppy drive (drive a: or b: usually) • CD-ROM drive (drive d: usually)

  12. Files (storage of computer data and programs) • Data files • Program files • How files are stored (disk storage) • Format disk – prepare it to store files • Tracks and sectors • Directory and subdirectory (folders) • File name, extension, size, date, time, attributes, address

  13. Files (storage of computer data and programs) • Manage files • Created and updated by software packages • Copy • Delete • Attributes (read only) • Organize in sub directories (folders)

  14. Hardware (networks) • Nodes • Hubs • Server • Client / Server environment • What is a client? • What is a server? • How used? • Store software • Store data files – drives e, f, g … z

  15. Hardware (networks) • Why do we use networks? • Share resources • Hardware • Software • Data / Information • Which shared resource is the most important?

  16. Users / Experts • Data workers • Knowledge workers • Users • Programmers / System analyst • Workgroups (groupware) • Information Technology (IT)

  17. Categories of Computer Systems • Microcomputer (PC – Personal Computer)(based on the microprocessor) • Processor, single chip • Basically a single user machine • Growing in use - Companies are downsizing and individual use is increasing • Minicomputers / Midrange • Mainframe • Supercomputer

  18. Computer Capabilities (why computers?) • Speed - process data very quickly • milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds , picoseconds • Accurate - if data is entered correctly and instructions are correct, the machine can consistently process and give a correct answer. • Quantity - memory and storage capacity is large, the machine is capable of working with a large amount of data. • Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte • Reliability - Computers have become very reliable, uptime vs downtime ratio is high.

  19. Where and how computers are used. • Information Systems • Personal Computing • Science and Research • Process Control • Education and Training • AI (Artificial Intelligence) • Robotics, Expert systems • Communication • Computer-Aided Design • Entertainment and Edutainment • Other …

  20. Hardware specifics • How a computer works (bits/bytes/machine cycle) • Hardware configuration

  21. On – Off states within a computer • Data representation, encoding systems • Binary Digits (bits) • Bytes • EBCDIC and ASCII encoding systems • Octal Digits (base 8) • Hexadecimal Digits (base 16) • Movement of bits within machine • Processor • Electronic bus • Expansion slots, Storage, and Ports

  22. How a computer works • Machine Language • Programming languages • Source code (High level programming language) • Compiler • Object code to executable code (Machine Language) • Machine Cycle • Instruction cycle (I-time) • Fetch instruction • Decode instruction • Execution Cycle (E-time) • Execute instruction • Send results back to RAM

  23. Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor • Two basic units within the processor • Control Unit • Arithmetic/Logic Unit • Word length (32 bits) • Data path (32 bits) • Clock speed (MHz) • Registers within processor • Instruction register • Program / Address register • Accumulator • Others

  24. Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor • History of Intel Processors • 8088 / 8086 • 80286 • 80386 SX / 80386 DX • 80486 SX / 80486 DX / 80486 DX2 • Pentium (80586) • Pentium Pro (80686) • Other processor manufactures • Motorola (used in Macintosh & Sun Workstations) • 68000 / 68020 / 68030 / 68040 / 68060 • PowerPC • Cyrix / AMD / …

  25. PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard) Electronic Bus • Open vs closed architecture • Types of standard architectures • ISA • EISA & MCA • PCMCIA (laptops and notebooks) • Video Local Bus architectures • PCI • VESA - VL Bus (not used) • SCSI buses architecture

  26. PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard) Expansion slots • Match architecture • Add-on cards/boards • Plug-and-play Memory • RAM (Random Access Memory) • CMOS • DRAM, SRAM, & SIMMs • SDRAM & DIMM • ROM (Read Only Memory) • Cache Memory • Flash Memory

  27. PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard) Ports • Keyboard • Mouse • Video • Parallel port (parallel transmission) • Serial port (serial transmission) • Game

  28. PC System Unit - Throughput • Determined by the best combination of • Processor (word length, data path, clock speed) • Bus architecture • Amount of cache memory • Amount of RAM memory • Access time to disk drive • MIPS • FLOPS • GFLOPS

  29. Software specifics • System software • Applications

  30. System Software • Operating Systems (OS) • Network Operating System (NOS) • Communication • Device Drivers • Utility Software • Others

  31. Operating System • Kernel or Supervisor • Multitasking • foreground • background • User Interfaces • Text based • GUI • user friendly • icons • shell • Virtual Memory • Virtual Machine

  32. Platforms • PC platforms • PC compatibles with MS-DOS • PC compatibles with MS-DOS and Windows 3.xx • PC compatibles with Windows 95 • PC compatibles with OS/2 • PC compatibles with Windows NT • PC compatibles with UNIX • Macintosh finder Ver 7 • Midrange/mainframe

  33. Programming Languages • Computer Programs • Programming languages • Compilers • source code • object code • Syntax and logic errors

  34. Programming Languages • Generation of Programming Languages • Natural languages • Visual programming language • Fourth generation language • Object oriented languages • Procedure oriented languages • Assembler languages • Machine languages • Macros • Current trends

  35. Word Processing • Representing information in document form. • Why use word processing? • Importance of expressing ideas/information in text form. • Words on paper • Words in an electronic form

  36. Word Processing - Process • Access software • Create or open a file (document) • Enter & Edit text (get it to say what you want it to say) • Insertion point • Word wrap • Insert mode vs overtype mode • Full screen editing • Cut/Copy and Paste • Find and replace • Spell check, thesaurus, grammar check, … • WYSIWYG

  37. Word Processing - Process • Save document • Save often • Location of document

  38. Word Processing - Process • Formatting a document (get it to look the way you want it to look) • Spacing & alignment (vertical / horizontal) • Paragraph - Whole document – Section • Indents and tabs • Alignment of text – left, center, right, and justified • Margins • Spacing • Character attributes • Font • Type face • Size • Weight • Spacing • Graphics

  39. Word Processing - Process • Printing or posting • Print preview first!! • Select printer • Print only needed copies • Posting electronicly • Fax document

  40. Word Processing - Other features • Tables • Columns • Merging • Hypertext Links • Sharing word processing documents • ASCII or ANSI file • document conversion feature

  41. DTP (Desktop Publishing) • What is DTP? • Publishing using a print shop • Process • Advantages • Disadvantages • Publishing using DTP • Process in general • Advantages • Disadvantages

  42. Requirements for DTP • Hardware • PC • Page printer • Image scanner • Software • Page Composition Software • Illustration or Graphic Software • Word Processor Software • Other • clip art • typefaces and fonts

  43. DTP - process • Process • Create text • Create images • Create layout • Merge all together • Use tags to format • Understanding documents layout • Basic layout • Type of audience • Distribution (paper form / Web page / Electronic distribution / etc.) • Artistic skills

  44. Summary

  45. Questions