Biological Safety Training modified slightly from REM 2008 Rachael DeRudder
Biohazards • A biological hazard or biohazard is a self-replicating organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals and plants. • Human body fluids, unfixed tissues, cell lines, or genetic oncogenes • Can also be a fungus, bacteria, prion, parasite, or DNA component.
Exposure …………. to biohazards can occur by • Injection (contact with open wound or abraded skin) • Inhalation (absorption through respiratory tract • Ingestion (e.g. contam.fingers in mouth) • Absorption through mucous membranes (e.g. contam. finger in eye or nose) Intact skin is regarded as an effective barrier.
NIH Biohazard Risk Groups • RG 1: Agents of no or minimal hazard under ordinary conditions or handling • RG 2: Includes agents which may produce disease of varying degrees of severity from accidental inoculation or injection or other means of cutaneous penetration but which are contained by ordinary laboratory techniques.
NIH Biohazard Risk Groups • RG 3: Includes pathogens that require special conditions for containment. • RG 4: Require the most stringent conditions for their containment because they are extremely hazardous to laboratory personnel or may cause serious epidemic disease.
Biohazard Classifications Biosafety levels corresponds to the rating of the biohazard, i.e., BSL2 required for RG 2 (BSL2 is the most common type of biohazard project that occurs on campus.)
BSL2 • Limited access, • Door posts warnings, • Surface decontamination methods, • Waste handling, • No eating or drinking, • Hand washing, • Appropriate personal protective equipment, and • A Class 2 Biosafety Cabinet (if aerosol production is anticipated).
Awareness Training points • Specific handling techniques for each RG 2 or higher pathogen that is used must be reviewed and explained by the Principal Investigator. • Signs and symptoms for the onset of disease caused by the organism must be reviewed.
Bio-Awareness Training • Special hazards, i.e., complications for pregnancies and immuno-compromised lab staff, must be explained and posted. • Know the proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). • Appropriate decontamination procedures must be reviewed. • Any required security steps must be taken.
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PPE can include the PROPER • Goggles • Gloves • Footwear • Lab Coats • For the Task
Respiratory Protection comes in many varieties. Choose the appropriate mask for the task.
Waste Handling - Bags BIO-RELATED WASTE MATERIALS: • Dispose of in properly labeled water impervious autoclavable bags (usually red or orange bags). • Do not over fill bags. • Utilize proper personal protective equipment and wash hands after completion. • Keep bags closed until they are ready to be decontaminated. • Do not dispose of a bio waste bag in the regular trash. • Do not place these bags in public areas such as hallways. Contact REM for removal of deconned and autoclaved materials.
Protect yourself from the contents. Hold Bio bags away from your body. Don’t squeeze the bag so aerosols are released into your breathing space. Take biowaste to the autoclave room as soon as possible.
Waste Handling - Autoclave • Autoclaves -- high pressure and steam (270F) eliminate biological activity (KILL EVERYTHING) on equipment, wastes, or growth mediums. • SERIOUS INJURY POSSIBLE. • Do not put the following items in the autoclave: - Sealed containers - Aerosol cans - Volatiles - Uncontained sharps
Waste Handling - SHARPS • SHARPS: as glass, plastic, razor blades, needles, etc. capable of puncturing, cutting, or abrading the skin. • Properly handle, decontaminate, and dispose of sharps in order to prevent injury and potential disease transmission.
DO NOT PLACE SHARPS CONTAINERS IN THE REGULAR TRASH! CALL REM FOR PICKUP
In the event of a spill: Use the proper PPE Use the proper disinfectant solution. Dispose of clean-up materials in biohazard bags.
Security • EVERYONE is responsible for security in the laboratory. • Know the security rules for your classification. • Report the disappearance of any biohazardous material to your Supervisor. Special security measures apply to users of “Select Agents.” Contact the University Biosafety Officer for more specific details.
HEPA Filtered Cabinets Biological Safety Cabinet Laminar Flow Clean Bench HEPA stands for: High Efficiency Particulate Air
Biological Safety Cabinets Laminar Flow Clean Benches HEPA filters on both supply and exhaust HEPA filtered supply air only • Protects operator • Protects the environment • Protects the product • Reduces the risk of airborne infection by reducing the escape of aerosols • Protects the product • Blows aerosols into the operator’s face. • Does not protect the operator • Should not be used with potential pathogens • Is not a Biological Safety Cabinet
BSC – Safe for Biohazard Use Visual Indicator Sash
BIOSAFETY CABINET AIRFLOW (Courtesy of Eagleson Institute)
CLEAN BENCH AIRFLOW POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED AIR HEPA FILTERED AIR ROOM AIR Courtesy of Eagleson Institute
Select Agents • Agents that could be used for terrorist acts • Highly regulated • Stiff penalties • FBI background checks • High security No one at Purdue has been approved for Select Agents at this time.
Resources Center For Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/ Select Agent Program http://www.cdc.gov/od/sap/ Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories 5th Edition, January 20007 http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/BMBL_5th_Edition.pdf/
Resourcescontinued Material Safety Data Sheets For Research Pathogens http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/index.html Purdue University Biosafety Manual http://www.purdue.edu/rem/home/booklets/bioman.pdf Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/rac/guidelines/guidelines.html
Bloodborne Pathogens Know the Risks!
Purpose of Bloodborne Pathogen Training? • Provide a basic understanding of • bloodborne pathogens, • common modes of their transmission, • methods of prevention, and • other pertinent information.
Who should attend BloodbornePathogen Training? If you can anticipate facing contact with blood and/or other potentially infectious materials as part of your job duties you should receive Bloodborne Pathogen awareness training.http://www.purdue.edu/REM
What We Will Cover During Training • What are Bloodborne Pathogens? • Bloodborne Diseases and Symptoms • What are the routes of entry? • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Spills and cleanup requirements • Sharps containers and biohazard bags • Hepatitis B vaccination program • Post Exposure program
What Are Bloodborne Pathogens? • Microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in blood and can cause disease in human. • Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are the three diseases specifically addressed by the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard.
Where are Bloodborne Pathogens Found? • Human Blood • Human blood components • Human cell lines and unfixed tissue • Products made from human blood • Other bodily fluids that may mask the presence of blood
Hepatitis B and C • Approx 300,000 people infected with HBV annually. A small percentage are fatal. • Over 10,000 people infected with Hepatitis C. • "Hepatitis" means "inflammation of the liver." It HBV transmitted primarily through "blood to blood" contact causing inflammation of the liver, but it can lead to more serious conditions such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Facts for Hepatitis B (HBV)and Hepatitis C (HCV) • HBV/HCV can live on a dry surface for at least 7 days. • You have a 6 to 30% greater chance of contracting HBV/HCV from a needle stick versus a 1% chance of contracting HIV from a needle stick. • There IS a vaccine for HBV. There is NOT a vaccine for Hepatitis C.
Symptoms of HBV and HCV • Symptoms of HBV and HCV are very like a mild “flu”, (fatigue, loss of appetite, stomach pain). • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and darkened urine will often occur. • It can take 1-9 months for symptoms to become noticeable, although it is commonly within 1-3 months.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. • AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is caused by a virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. • Estimates on the number of people infected with HIV vary, but some estimates suggest that an average of 35,000 people are infected every year in the United States.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) FACTS • It is the weakest of the three viruses. • AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is caused by the HIV virus. • Medical personnel have 0.4% chance of exposure to HIV from a needle stick.
Symptoms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Symptoms of HIV infection can vary, but include: • Weakness, fatigue • Fever, swollen lymph glands • Rapid weight loss, diarrhea • Opportunistic Infections attack the body • There is NOT a vaccine for HIV
Transmission of Bloodborne Diseases • It is important to know the ways exposure and transmission are most likely to occur in your particular situation, be it providing first aid to a student in the classroom, handling blood samples in the laboratory, or working on a project that may be contaminated with blood or body fluids.
HBV and HIV are most commonly transmitted through: • Sexual Contact • Sharing needles • Accidental puncture from needles, or other sharps • Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids • Contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids
Reduce Risk of Exposure • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is designed to guard against and significantly reduce the risks of exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens. • Contaminated PPE must be removed and discarded using a Biohazard bag before leaving the area or upon contamination. • Wash Hands Immediately upon removing gloves
PPE How to Protect Yourself SAFETY!
Blood Spill Clean-up • Use bleach and water (1/10 ratio) or appropriate disinfectant • If using a spray bottle hold 8” high or more • Use a controlled wiping motion to let towel absorb spill, do not spread spill • Discard towel into the biohazard bag being careful not to contaminate outside of bag
Wash hands for 20 seconds after removing gloves or immediately after an exposure. Use non-abrasive soap. Work Practice Controls
Engineering Controlsfor Sharps • Frequently, housekeepers, custodians and others are punctured or cut by improperly disposed needles and broken glass. It is important to handle and dispose of all sharps carefully in order to protect yourself as well as others. • Contaminated sharps must be placed in properly labeled (Biohazards) leak proof, puncture resistant containers.