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The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

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The Endocrine System

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Endocrine System • Structure and Function • Chemical communication system in body • Consists of numerous small glands found throughout the body • Secrete chemicals known as hormones • Hormones • Chemicals produced and released by endocrine glands, travel through the blood and elicit certain responses

  2. The Endocrine System

  3. Five Areas of Hormone Function • Homeostasis • Growth and Development • Reproduction • Energy production, storage and use • Behavior

  4. Homeostasis the story of a really hot guy…. • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch17/hot_guy.html

  5. Negative feedback loops

  6. Growth & Development

  7. Reproduction

  8. Reproduction

  9. Energy production, storage and use

  10. Energy production, storage and use

  11. Behavior

  12. Behavior

  13. Characteristics of the Endocrine System • Has access to every cell • Each hormone acts only on certain cells • Target cells

  14. Characteristics of the Endocrine System • Has access to every cell • Each hormone acts only on certain cells • Target cells • Target cells have the correct receptors • Endocrine control slower than Nervous control • Endocrine and Nervous systems can interact with each other.

  15. Not all hormones are the same • Steroid hormones • Non-steroid hormones

  16. Steroid Hormones • Lipid-based hormones • Non-polar - can diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane • Binds to receptors inside the cell • Attaches to cell’s DNA • Control’s gene function - can turn on/off genes • Alters protein production • Examples: Testosterone, Estrogen

  17. Steroid Hormones

  18. Non-Steroid Hormones • Amino acid-based hormones • Lipid insoluble - cannot diffuse through phospholipid layer of cell membrane • Binds to receptors on the cell membrane • Can activate enzymes within the cell to cause change • Can open or close ion channels to affect permeability of cell membrane • Examples:Epinephrine, Insulin

  19. Non-Steroid Hormones

  20. Pituitary Gland

  21. Pituitary Gland • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) • Growth Hormone (GH) • Oxytocin • Prolactin • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

  22. Increases reabsorption of water in kidneys Monitors solutes in blood stream Regulates blood volume & blood pressure Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

  23. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

  24. Controls growth of bones & muscles Increases protein synthesis St Adipose to release energy stores St liver to break down glycogen Growth Hormone (GH)

  25. Growth Hormone (GH)

  26. Stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth Stimulates release of milk Promotes bonding Oxytocin

  27. Encouraging bonding Oxytocin released by mom during breast feeding Released during sexual arousal and orgasm Cuddle & Bonding Hormone

  28. Stimulates milk production in female Stimulates testosterone production in male Prolactin

  29. Hormones work together…

  30. Stimulates development of gametes in both males and females Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

  31. Endocrine Glands • Pineal Gland • Melatonin • Thyroid Gland • Thyroxine • Thymus Gland • Thymosin

  32. Secretes melatonin Regulates reproductive development Regulates circadian rhythm Antioxidant in brain Pineal Gland

  33. Produces Thyroxine Regulates metabolic rates Regulates amount of glucose used in cellular respiration mitochondria Promotes growth Regulates body temperature Parathyroid regulates calcium Thyroid

  34. Produces Thymosin Stimulates production and maturation of white blood cells Thymus

  35. Adrenal Glands

  36. Produces Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Prepares body for emergencies Fight or flight response Regulates sodium & potassium & glucose metabolism Adrenal Glands