Incident Response, Parking Management, and Maintenance Management Systems
Incidents Could be anything, outhouses to Christmas trees
Incident Management / Emergency Response • Urban legend: 60 percent of delay is related to non-recurring congestion – incidents • Solution: • Identify and remove incidents • Speed removal by sending the correct equipment as quickly as possible
Incident Management • Incident detection • Incident verification • Incident response • Management • Motorist information
Incident Detection • Now, primarily by cellular phone • Overwhelming 911 call centers • E-911 (location information) • Also • Traffic surveillance systems • CB radio • Motorist call boxes
Motorist Call Boxes • Used to be expensive, now easy to install because of cell service
Incident Verification • Notification of an incident is not detection • Where is it really? • What is the problem? • Does it really exist?
Incident Verification • Usually requires visual confirmation • CCTV • Personal visit • Service patrol • Police • Airplane • Maintenance staff
Incident Verification - Response • Verification allows call out of response • The faster the proper response, the faster clearance takes place
Incident Response • Proper response requires an understanding of the incident • Basic assistance (gas / a push) • Tow truck • Large tow truck • Fire truck • EMT • Hazardous material spill recovery • Fatal accident investigation team (Police use technology to record and clear scene, e.g. photogrammerty)
Incident Response - Management • Communications are key • Between respondents • Call for additional assistance • Coordination of efforts • Turf wars used to be a big issues • ITS provides many new cost effective communication options
Incident Management – Motorist Information • Motorist information is a big part of management • Routing information • Manage facility demand • Provide better travel alternatives to customers • Reduce frustration / poor driving behavior • Manage traveler expectations
Motorist Information • Information needs to be delivered to customers • Radio • VMS / CMS • New electronic devices • Other
Parking Management • Maximize space utilization (if demand is not evenly distributed) • Reduce VMT caused by searching for a space • One estimate is up to 30% of urban traffic is “search traffic”
Parking Management • Requires • Monitoring of space availability • Communication with drivers • Connection between monitor and communications • Funding to pay for the system
Parking Management • Methods for monitoring space availability • Counting in/out movements • Checking individual space availability • Communication with motorists (guidance systems) • VMS / CMS (location?) • Reservation Systems
Parking Management • Message Signs • Where do you place them? • At the garage • Prior to the garage • At decision points • What do they say? • Numbers versus directions • How do you update them? • When do they get updated?
Parking Technologies • Automated parking systems • Robopark • Electronic or wireless reservation/payment • Similar to electronic tolls • Use mobile phone or transponders • Advanced parking meters • Provide real time information if space is occupied
Parking Management • Who pays for the system? • What’s the incentive to do this? • Who participates in the system? • Where are the benefits? • The public? • The private parking companies?
EU’s e-Parking Project • On-going European Union program • Uses wireless networks, cell phones, PDAs to: • Get advance information on parking space • Make a reservation • Open barrier at facility • Pay for service • Can all be completed in vehicle
Smart Parking at Baltimore Airport • Signs indicate number of free spaces
Ultrasound sensor checks each space for a vehicle. Green/Red light above space indicates if space available.
Open Stall Changeable signs indicate spaces in rows
Robopark • Space saving modular parking systems • Driver parks and pushes button • Car is automatically moved to a space • Use access card or code to retrieve car
Seattle Center Parking • New system at three parking lots and garages • Loops at entrance/exit tally cars and determine occupancy • Linked to VMS signs on streets in area
Maintenance Management • Real time (predictive) knowledge of weather conditions • Real time knowledge of the position and status of assets • 22% of vehicle crashes in U.S. occur under adverse road weather conditions
Snow Control / Removal • Less expensive to prevent snow/ice accumulation than to remove it • Place anti-icing chemicals prior to ice formation • Only saves money if it actually snows / ices over
Snow Prediction • Requires extensive weather monitoring system • Must track micro-climates • Need forecasting capabilities • But can be save money
Smart Snowplow Technologies • Finding and staying on roads • GPS with accurate road database, magnetic paint strips, embedded magnetic markers • Detect hidden objects • Collision warning radar • Rear end collisions • Strobes • Driver fatigue • Devices designed with driver comfort in mind • Friction measurement (for performance info)
Washington Roadway Weather Forecasting RWIS (Remote Weather Information Systems) • Linked stations from a number of agencies • Airport • Universities • Cities • Military Bases • On Ferries • 570 stations across state
Forecasting Grids Resolutions 12 Kilometer 4 Kilometer 36 Kilometer