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PIA 3090 PowerPoint Presentation

PIA 3090

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PIA 3090

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  1. PIA 3090 Comparative Public Administration

  2. Historical Models, “Contemporary Models” and Socio-Economic Change Week 3

  3. Presentations • “Golden Oldies” • Literary Maps

  4. Overview • The Public Sector and the Economy • Debates Over Development Management • The European Model, North Atlantic Unity and Japan • Comparative Public Administration Issues

  5. Ideology as Social Science

  6. The Public Sector and the Economy Reminder: Karl Marx- The Other German- Source of ideas about the developmental state. Marx as a Social Scientist not an Ideologue. The contemporary of Max Weber

  7. Karl Marx: Another Five Minutes a.. Original Marxian views- State as the instrument of the ruling classes b. The dialectic and Historical Materialism c. Model: (John Armstrong- The Conservative Marxist) -Thesis -Antithesis -Synthesis

  8. Dialectic ThesisAntithesis Synthesis

  9. Class Conflict: Four Epochs Slavery Feudalism Capitalism Socialism e. Functionaries as the petty bourgeoisie f. Communism- state and the bureaucracy whither away

  10. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov(Lenin)(April 221870  – January 21, 1924)

  11. Command Economy- Revised by Lenin • Under socialism, government, the bureaucracy should manage the economy • The development of an elaborate national planning system • Keynes- Failure of market

  12. Command Economy • The debate: Keynesianism and European Socialism (the Rose)- How much is this part of Command Economy Framework? (Guy Peters) • Development Administration: Command Economics in the Third World? (Heady, Riggs vs. Vincent and Eleanor Ostrom)

  13. Debate over the Economy 1. The International Contemporary State: Continental Europe vs. the U.S. or the U.K. 2. Adam Smith, "the hidden hand" and Classical Economics- An Anglo-Saxon View 3. Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union: Command Economy (whole or part)

  14. Adam SmithJune 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790

  15. Continental Europe • Counter-influence of St. Simonism- an interventionist view (See John Armstrong). • “the era of abundance could be attained certainly and quickly. The guaranteed means were applications of science and technology to unrestricted mastery of nature.” Count de Saint-Simon 1760-1825

  16. Count Henri de Saint-simon

  17. Social Democracy • The Rose • Socialism and the Rise of Labor in Europe • The Second International

  18. American Activism vs. European Socialism (U.S. Social Democratic Party)

  19. “We’re All Keynesians Now”Friday, Dec. 31, 1965

  20. Unification of the North Atlantic- 1930s-1970s- The Primacy of Keynesianism 1. Monetary Policy 2. Fiscal Policy 3. Wage and Price controls

  21. The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control 1. Traditional- police and law and order 2. National Defense 3. Social Services- Education and Health and Welfare 4. Resource Mobilization

  22. The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control- Continued 5. Economic Growth generation 6. LDCs and Modernization Theory: Agraria vs. Industria (Turner and Holm) 7.The challenge of Public Choice, rationalism and the University of Chicago School: Neo-Orthodoxy- less influence outside of the Anglo-Saxon world

  23. Agraria vs. Industria

  24. Breaktime Ten Minute Break

  25. Chalmers JohnsonAuthor of the Week (Japan and Economic Development)

  26. Prologue: Two quotes: • "There are several ways in which the government has influenced the structure of Japan's special institutions."[1] • "What is lawful and therefore is unlawful, depends on the culture and the country in question."[2] [1] Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982), p. 14. [2] Robert Klitgaard, Controlling Corruption (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), p. 3.

  27. Japan and Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) • Asian Model • Corporatist- Inter-meshing of state and Private Sector • Management (not Political) Focus • Growth and Export • Model for Asian Tigers

  28. Ministry of International Trade and Industry Block 10, Government Offices Complex, Jalan Duta,50622 KL, MalaysiaTel no: 603-6203 3022Fax no: 603-6201

  29. Fred Warren Riggs, 90, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, professor emeritus of political science, passed away on February 9, 2008

  30. Riggs Life Professor Riggs was born in Kuling, China on July 3, 1917, the son of agricultural missionary parents Charles H. and Grace (Frederick) Riggs.  He attended Nanking University, 1934-35.

  31. Comparative Public Administration Issues a. The politics-administration dichotomy b. Environmental and cultural factors are important. Ecology as an issue c. Bureaucracy as a Negative? Keep government out of people's lives

  32. ISSUES d. Comparative as a method- structural-functionalist e. Systemic influence on the individual- role definition, socialization and development of organizations vs. institutions

  33. Comparative Methods

  34. Development Administration: C.A.G.- Focus on comparative and development administration. Bad reputation • Foundations and CAG- chalets in Italy to discuss administrative and political development • US AID and Universities- 3 out of every 4 dollars never left the U.S. Now .93 never leaves. • Post-Vietnam and Iran

  35. CAG Contined • NIPAs, staff colleges and IDMs spring up all over Africa and Asia • After 1975/80- Foundations pulled the plug • CAG End of Ford grant, 1974 • Post-Vietnam syndrome: Withdrawals, Ayatollas, now nine-one-one • End of Development as a consensus Northern Tier goal

  36. THEORY: Civil Society vs. State DEBATES John D. Montgomery vs. Milton Esman

  37. End of Macro-Approach 1.The Macro Approach: No Longer In Vogue (except with Ferrel Heady) a. Systems building from Almond to Riggs b. Almond's functions and Easton's black boxes c. Theme- Look at common functions- focus on INSIDE processes of executive government

  38. End of Macro-Approach 2. Things often done by different structures and processes Key:- Who makes rules - who carries out, implements 3. Critics: Lack of systems level theory

  39. The Situation in 1983:Modified "traditional Approach"- A Micro and Meso level approach a. Most like an "orthodoxy" of public administration b. Comparative Study of: 1. Parts of the System- budgeting, personnel, inter-governmental relations, policy process 2. Or whole systems- Britain vs. France, U.S. vs. Russia, Botswana vs. Tanzania- Not Comparative

  40. Middle Range Theory: a. Problem- largely non-theory b. Focus on specific relationships: eg. bureaucracy and political and moral variables within a country c. Mostly case studies- Egypt, Botswana, the U.S. All the same method. "The Case Study"

  41. Robert King MertonJuly 4, 1910 - February 23, 2003

  42. The Situation in 1989 c. Often turns out to be very specific: i.e. focused institutions 1. Ombudsman 2. Auditor General 3. Territorial Governor as rep. of national authority- the Prefectoral system d. The Problem: Comparative studies of institutions are very expensive-run out of money/go back to case studies

  43. From 1989-2001 • End of Cold War • Application of Structural Adjustment to Socialist Countries • September 11 • Democracy and Governance

  44. SICA- The Current Generation: Public-Private Partnerships Jennifer Brinkerhoff: George Washington University

  45. 2001-Present Micro-Issues: Debate about “Whole of Government • Public-Private Partnerships • Contracting Out • Three D’s: Diplomacy, Defense and Development

  46. Mock Question According to Johnson, "There are several ways in which the government has influenced the structure of Japan's special institutions."[1] Assess the Asian Model from a Comparative Public Management Perspective. What Socio-Economic Systems does Chalmers Johnson identify? How do they relate to the state? How has government grown according to Peters? [1] Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982), p. 14.