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PIA 2000

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PIA 2000

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  1. PIA 2000 Week Six: Organizations, Socializatin and Motivation

  2. David Osborne and Ted Gabler John Armstrong Question: Can Bureaucracy be reformed? David Osborne PERSONS OF THE WEEK

  3. Administrative Culture: Overview • Socialization and Bureaucratic Behavior • The Concept of political and Administrative Culture • A mixture of elite and mass culture

  4. THESIS • Political Culture can predict political behavior • Culture limits the action of citizens and administrators, channels demands and excludes certain possible policy options • Changing the Organizational Culture Reforms the Organization

  5. The Concept of Political Culture a. People are tied to a unique web of historical experiences b. Assumption: From the general culture one can extract out the salient aspects of that culture that relate to political behavior and organizational and administrative traditions

  6. Groups 1, 2 and 4 constitute the traditional political culture, also found in the labour movement, Groups 3 and 6 constitute a user-oriented political culture based on functional participation in single issues; whereas group 7 contains the very active political elite. Danish Political Culture: Re. Housing Sub-Cultures

  7. The Concept Continued c. Organizational Culture is a sub-set of broader cultural assumptions d. In looking for evidence of a political or an administrative culture we are looking for a set of representative values for the people of that society

  8. Organizational Culture: The Ideal Type

  9. Values and Motivation: Redeux 1. Theory X vs. Theory Y= Theory Z 2. Maslov’s Hierarchy: Basic needs, social needs and ego needs 3. Application of Theories of Motivation outside the U.S. Case Study (China, Korea, South Africa and Brazil) 4. The Special problem of Fragile and Collapsed states. 5. The Importance of a Motivation Theory in a Country Such as Guinea

  10. The Hierarchy of Needs Redux

  11. Two Assumptions 1. Many cultures: regional, administrative, ethnic, professional, etc. including hierarchy of values 2. These are effected by historical origin, race, gender, education, region, etc.

  12. The Key Three dimensions of Culture

  13. Three components of Culture a. Information and Measurable Understanding b. Beliefs and Values c. Emotions

  14. Components of Culture

  15. The Cognitive Dimension- What people know. a. The set of historical and cultural information to which any native of the society is automatically tuned in b. All societies have their peculiarities which are part of their political culture

  16. The Evaluative Dimension- Not the is but the what ought to be a. What is good and bad b. U.S.- Military service good, welfare cheaters bad

  17. Evaluation

  18. Emotive

  19. The Emotive Dimension- The emotional attachment that people have to their political system a. Symbolism and myth, anthems and flags b. Provides the strength of values c. Nationalism- “My country right or wrong”

  20. Socialization 1. Process by which political attitudes are formed and maintained 2. Acquisition of values, beliefs, and knowledge about the political system on both the individual and community level 3. Cultural transmission across generations- the introduction of new generations to the beliefs and values of the old

  21. Socialization

  22. The Way Things Are Learned • May be cognitive, evaluative or emotional • Vague Patriotic image- eg. U.S. paternal- President as "super-friend" and father image (shattered by Watergate and post-Watergate- See Bob Woodward’s Books About Bush (and Tina Fey’s Sarah Palin) • Societal and community definitions • Personal identification with government

  23. SNL “Bob Woodward Arrested for Treason” (Fake) Values and Learning

  24. Socialization- Continued • Can be a conscious or an unconscious effort- as to how attitudes towards policy are formed • Issue of Cultural Engineering- Ideological and explicit • Revolutionary & Developmental Societies- Ideological and explicit

  25. Cultural Engineering

  26. Socialization- Continued • U.S. and Western Europe- mostly indirect (Instrumental and implicit) • Often hidden within a pragmatic, fairly loose value system

  27. Europe and Class

  28. The Crux of the Issue Socialization: Mass vs. elite (vs. Organizational) socialization

  29. Derk Jan Eppink: Class and Governance

  30. Levels of Socialization a. Primary- Most important: occurs within the family b. Secondary- Everything else before adulthood, school, peers, national and regional- it is here that cultural engineering occurs c. Tertiary- Professional and Organizational- Begins with University. Issue how specialization of bureaucratic elites is related to socialization and education

  31. Europe 2006 to 2010? Crisis

  32. Discussion • Political, Administrative Culture and Socialization have a major impact on organizational behavior. • Question to Return to: Can we Re-invent Government given Premises about Socialization. (Osborne and Gabler)

  33. Socialization and Public Service • Discussion: • John Armstrong- The European Administrative Elite

  34. Armstrong’s Thesis • Asynchronous Comparison • Status, Role Theory and Counter-Roles • Socialization and the Diffusion of Development Doctrines • The Prefect as Territorial Administrator and role in Development Intervention • Back to Reality: Guinea’s Prefect as a Rent-Seeking Predator

  35. Discussion Issue of Culture Gusfield-UC San Diego • Joseph Gusfield • Guy Peters • V.S. Naipaul

  36. Culture and Public Affairs VS. Naipaul B. Guy Peters

  37. Discussion Next Week: Irving R. Janus- Research Psychologist 26 May 1918 - 15 November 1990) Group Think- What is it?