Unit II- U.S. Foreign Policy History 1865- WWII Chapter 21 Section 1 A Spark Ignites Europe
10th American HistoryUnit II- U.S. Foreign AffairsReading Quiz for Chapter 21 Sect. 1 1. What was the spark that started WWI? 2. In WWI whose side was Russia on? 3. In WWI whose side was France on? 4. England declared war on Germany attacked France through what country? 5. How did the United States feel about the War in Europe? 6. What problems were Americans having with international law and freedom of the seas? 7. How did Germany enforce its war zone around the British Isles? 8. What brought America into WWI?
No one event or person caused the Great War. There were many factors that contributed to mobilization of the belligerents Five Major factors often identified as causes of World War I (but not causes of U.S. entry) Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Events or Economics Possible causes of U.S. entry British Propaganda and Pro-British sentiment Submarine Warfare Munitions trade and loans to Great Britain Zimmerman Note Sinking of the Lusitania Causes of World War I
The Spark • Serbians feared that the Archduke would continue and even heighten the persecution of Serbs living within the Austro-Hungarian empire. • Serbia had gained independence in 1878, and claimed several regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. which Austria-Hungary officially annexed. • The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, would carry out the assassination of the Archduke. First the Black Hand operatives tossed a bomb at the Archduke's automobile. This missed. • The Archduke's chauffeur took a wrong turn and drove within ten feet of another Black Hand agent, Gavrilo Princip. Princip stepped up to the car and fired two pistol shots. One bullet hit Sophie, killing her instantly. The other hit Francis Ferdinand, who died within minutes. Princip attempted suicide, but was captured before succeeding.
World War I Begins - The Great War • Kaiser Wilhelm II on July 5th pledged that Germany would fully support Austria-Hungary in any action against Serbia. • On July 23, 1914, Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands. • On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun.
World War I Begins - The Great War • The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe of the 20th century. • In the weeks after the assassination, none of the critical leaders had the power or will to slow down the decisions, actions, reactions and attitude shifts of key government and military leaders. • By August, millions of Europeans -- especially the military and diplomatic leaders of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia -- saw war as the way to save their honor, as well as to solve the internal and international problems that needed to be resolved.
Allied Powers Serbia Russia France Great Britain Belgium Italy Portugal Greece Japan United States Central Powers Austria-Hungary Germany Empire Bulgaria Turkish Empire The Great War- Two Sides
Schlieffen Plan • Both sides originally believed that the Great War would be over quickly. • In Germany, this belief was based on a long established war strategy called the Schlieffen Plan. Start with a German army invading Belgium(avoiding eastern French Forts) to reach Paris. • The German generals were so confident of success that Kaiser Wilhelm II proclaimed that he would have "Paris for lunch, St. Petersburg for dinner." • The plan required precise timing, with no interruptions in the timetable -- its first objective was to capture Paris in precisely 42 days, and force the French to surrender. The German armies would then shift their focus to the eastern front and defeat the Russians before they were fully prepared to fight. • It started quickly on Aug. 2, 1914 with Germany invading Luxembourg and Belgium, but the British, French and Russians mobilized quicker than expected.
Stalemate • The war grew rapidly out of control. New styles of warfare, like the use of gas and heavy artillery, produced new kinds of horror and unprecedented levels of suffering and death. • As a Germans army crossed into Belgium, heading for Paris, the Russian Army - moving faster than the German generals had anticipated -- was already pushing into East Prussia. The German forces on the Eastern Front, however, quickly defeated the Tsar's army at the Battle of Tannenberg. • In the west, as the German army invaded Belgium, rumors and stories quickly spread of the atrocities the German soldiers inflicted upon Belgium civilians • The French, believing the German thrust into Belgium to be a fake, launched their own offensive on the eastern border between France and Germany the operations were disastrous, with the French army losing 27,000 soldiers in a single day. • When the German invasion of France failed to take Paris or destroy French and British resistance on the river Marne, stalemate quickly followed, and a line of trenches soon stretched along the war's Western Front from the Swiss Alps to the English Channel. Christmas Eve of 1914 saw an extraordinary truce between the men fighting in the trenches that had been called "the last twitch of the 19th century." Poison gas attack, Flanders, Belgium
U.S. Neutrality • Aug. 4, 1914 Wilson proclaims the neutrality of the United States. U.S. needs to be the model for world peace. U.S. more interested in competing for markets than killin. • 1915 Henry Ford charters a Peace Ship to Stockholm, Sweden conference January 1916 • Ford, then one of the richest men in the world, actually thought he could talk the leaders of Europe into stopping World War. • Ford believed if he could only get foreign leaders to sit down in a room, he could make them listen to reason and the war would end. Straight talk from a no-nonsense businessman would persuade where diplomatic doubletalk had failed. • A boat of pacifists-“Every crackpot and nut in the country wanted to get on that boat,” from socialists, to prohibitionists, to anti-smoking crusaders, to pro-German partisans, and people from “every religious splinter-group” in the country. • The Peace Expedition became a farce, The world press mocked them mercilessly. It failed. Oskar II- Peace ship
Allies U.S. spoke English language. U.S. Laws and customs based on English foundations. All news from Europe came through British press. (England had cut the trans-Atlantic cable) British Propaganda-atrocity stories. Kaiser Wilhelm had made many warlike (militaristic) statements. Trade with England and Allies was enormous. $3 Billion $2 billion in loans to Allies. Central Powers Millions in US favored Central powers due to ancestors who had been born in Austria, Germany or Hungary. Irish Americans were glad to see anyone fight the British. US had long been trading with the Germans. But that dropped by 1916 from $170 million to $1 million. Ties that bind
Problem of Neutral Rights • International Law and use of the Seas • Neutral nations still allowed to trade with both sides. • Warring nations were allowed by International Law to stop and inspect neutral vessels at sea. • Warring nations could seize certain war materials (Contraband)- explosives, guns and ammunition. But not other goods. • Before sinking a commercial ship, the attacker had to give warning. • No court, or police force to make nations obey the law. • “Freedom of the Seas”
British Navy Blockade- Control the seas and starve Germany into submission Contraband included all sorts of goods including food. All neutral ships would be searched even those going to neutral countries. England would seize any ship bound for Germany. North Sea was a military are and put mines down. All in violation of international law. British would pay for all goods seized after America protested. German Submarines 1915- fleet of 27 subs disobeyed international law. War zone- Germany declares this around the British Isles. Unrestricted sub warfare. Advised all neutrals not to travel there or on British ships. Wilson insists under International law Americans had the right to sail on any ship. And Germany would be accountable for all American lives. 1915- Germany sinks Lusitania, then Arabic and Sussex passenger ships. After promising not to sink unarmed passenger ships without warning. The Problem of Neutral Rights
Wilson’s Peace Efforts • In the election of 1916 his slogan had been “He kept us out of war”. • After 1916 Wilson still tried to keep the US out of the war. • He asked the European powers to declare a “Peace without victory.” But Germany announces unrestricted sub warfare. • Germany felt the US would be too late even if they entered the war.
The United States goes to war • Zimmerman note- German ambassador asked Mexico to join Central powers with promise to return all lands taken by the US. • 1917-Wilson arms Merchant ships for protection against submarines. • April 2, 1917 Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany. • “The world must be made safe for democracy. We must fight for the rights and liberties of small nations.” • Americans need to be soldiers of righteousness.
Wilson’s 14 Points- His Dream for the world • 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at"). • 2. Free navigation of all seas. • 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. • 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. • 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial • 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to developher own political set-up. • 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war. • 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine • 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "alongclearly recognisable lines of nationality." • 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary. • 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed forthe Balkan states. • 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks inthe old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. • 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea. • 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.