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CSD 5100 Introduction to Research Methods in CSD

CSD 5100 Introduction to Research Methods in CSD First Day Opening Stretch Course Requirements/Syllabus What is Science? What is Research? The Scientific Method Why is Research Important to Clinical Practice? The Philosophy of Science

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CSD 5100 Introduction to Research Methods in CSD

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  1. CSD 5100Introduction to Research Methods in CSD First Day Opening Stretch Course Requirements/Syllabus What is Science? What is Research? The Scientific Method Why is Research Important to Clinical Practice?

  2. The Philosophy of Science Science is the work that entails the search for answers to certain questions we may have about the physical world, human behavior, disease, anything… The tool we use for this search is the research process

  3. Logical Reasoning Process The cornerstone of scientific inquiry is logical reasoning Two types: Deductive reasoning Begins with a general premise or law known to be true which is used to explain specific observations or behaviors Inductive reasoning A general theory or law is derived from a series of specific observations or individual cases

  4. Science Is More Than Just Logical Thinking… Empiricism The elements of a problem under study must be able to be observed, measured, or tested “Seeing is Believing” Operationalism Observations, events, and behaviors should be defined quantitatively in measurable values

  5. Scientific Research: Definition and Assumptions The process by which we attempt to understand the world Three basic underlying assumptions: Order events occur in regular patterns, not randomly Determinism the occurrence of an event is determined by prior events Discoverability we expect to find answers to our questions

  6. Scientific Observation Allows us to observe events to explain the relationship between two or more variables

  7. Prerequisites of Scientific Observation Objectivity Making observations without interference from the observer’s personal biases, beliefs, or emotion Publicity Observations should be public Repeatability Observations must be described in enough detail to allow others to replicate the methods and results

  8. The Scientific Method The formal steps to the research process to answer a research question Five major steps to the scientific method The statement of the problem The research hypothesis The research method The analysis of results The interpretation of the results

  9. Statement of the Problem A clear description of the problem along with the rationale for its study

  10. Research Hypothesis A best guess as to the answer to the research question

  11. Research Method A procedure for answering the research question Includes a specification of participants (subjects) and a detailed plan for observing behaviors and recording observations (data) Validity Reliability

  12. Analysis of the Results After collecting and recording the data, we need to make sense of the results Graphs Tables Statistical analyses

  13. Interpretation of Results Major goals To answer the research question To support or refute the research hypothesis

  14. Types of Research in CSD Basic and applied research Laboratory and field studies Experimental and quasi-experimental research

  15. Basic and Applied Research Basic research Sole purpose is to contribute new scientific knowledge with no intention of solving a clinical problem or any other practical application Applied research Purpose is to solve a clinical problem or prove practical application

  16. Laboratory and Field Studies Field research Conducted in everyday settings Laboratory research Conducted in contrived settings outside the mainstream of daily life

  17. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Two requirements for true experimental research: Random assignment of subjects Complete control over selection of conditions If these requirements aren’t strictly met, then the research is quasi-experimental Quasi means “as if”, “almost”, “having a likeness to”

  18. The Ten Thousand Dollar Question… Why is the study of research methods so important to the field of communication disorders? Why do we make you take this class? Why is research such an important component to the graduate program, both academically and clinically?

  19. The Importance of Research Maximizing clinical effectiveness Understanding the research process improves critical thinking and the application of problem-solving skills Explosion of information The quality of our clinical work depends on our ability to evaluate and use relevant information as it emerges Evidence-based clinical practice

  20. Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Using research to help us, as clinicians, to design better clinical programs and to better assess their reliability and validity “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research”

  21. Next Week… Ethics in Research

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