Download
humanistic perspective n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Humanistic Perspective PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Humanistic Perspective

Humanistic Perspective

13 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Humanistic Perspective

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Humanistic Perspective Brooke Dahl Nancy Lindgren

  2. Definition • Human capacity for choice and growth. • Humans have free will • Not fated to behave in specific ways. • Subjective experience of the world--how humans experience things, why they experience things, etc.

  3. Humanistic Psychology • Emphasizes the study of the whole person. • Behavior is determined by perception of world around him. • Not a product of their environment • Internally directed an motivated to fulfill their potential.

  4. According to humanistic psychologists, we are motivated not merely to survive, but to become better and better. This process is called self-actualization.

  5. Origins • Middle ages • Began in the 15th century • Modern humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s.

  6. Evolution • Humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s and complemented behaviorism and psychoanalysis with its focus on the individual as a whole person. • Continued to grow in the second half of the 20th century

  7. Development of the field • Motivation and Personality -1954 • Humanistic Psychology – 1958 • Journal of Humanistic Psychology-1961 • American Association for Humanistic Psychology was organized- 1962 • First position paper presented in US-1963 • First graduate program was instituted at Sonoma State College, CA – 1963 • APA subdivision called Humanistic Psychology was created -1970. • First international conference in Holland - 1970

  8. Key components of self-understanding • Self-actualization • Self fulfillment • Self-realization

  9. Carl Rogers • Taught at University of Chicago • Taught at the University of Wisconsin • Believes that a fully adjusted person can symbolize any experience in the conscious verbalization.

  10. Carl Rogers • 1902-1987 • Intersubjective Verification • Interest in counseling • Wrote The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939)

  11. Abraham Maslow • 1908-1970 • Attended University of Wisconsin • Taught at Brooklyn College • 1951 served as the chair of the psychology dept.

  12. “Is this it? Is this self-actualization?”

  13. Metaneeds & Metapathologies • Truth, rather than dishonesty • Goodness, rather than evil • Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity. • Unity, not arbitrariness or forced choice • Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life • Uniqueness, not bland uniformity • Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, or accident • Completion, rather than incompleteness • Justice & order, not injustice and lawlessness • Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity • Richness, not environmental impoverishment • Effortlessness, not strain • Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery • Self-sufficiency, not dependency • Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness

  14. Erich Fromm • 1900-1980 • Autobiography: Beyond the Chains of Illusion. • Moved to US in 1934

  15. Erich Fromm • 2 significant events that started him along his path. • 12 years old • 14 years old • Moved to Mexico to teach. He had done research into relationship between economic class and personality types.

  16. Theory • Combination of Freud and Marx • Freedom • Transcend the determinism of Freud and Marx.

  17. FROMM'S ORIENTATIONS TEST How well does each word apply to you?  5 (very well), 4, 3, 2, 1 (not at all).

  18. The Social Unconscious

  19. Choice v. Determination • CHOICE

  20. Characteristics--Healthy Personality • HEALTHY • Authenticity • Congruence • Freedom • Being • Search for meaning

  21. Characteristics--Unhealthy Personality • UNHEALTHY • Conformity • Alienation • Fragmentation • Having • Search for happiness

  22. Guidelines for assessing personality • “Non-directive” counseling • Play therapy • Assessment of self concept through rating scales • Q-sort Techniques • Interviews

  23. Roots of the Humanistic Movement in Education • A. S. Neill is recognized as the first modern humanistic educator. • Neill founded the Summerhill school, an open education program in England. • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow laid the psychological framework for the open education movement in the US.

  24. Humanistic Movement in Education • The basic objectives of humanistic education are to encourage students to: • Be self-directed and independent • Take responsibility for their learning • Be creative and interested in the arts • Be curious about the world around them.

  25. Principles of Humanistic Education • 5 basic principles of humanistic education are: • Student’s learning should be self-directed • Schools should produce students who want & know how to learn. • Only form of meaningful evaluation is self-evaluation. • Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important to the learning process. • Students learn best in a non-threatening environment.

  26. Humanistic Education in Practice • Characteristics of open classrooms • Freedom of choice in study • Ability to move freely around classroom • Access to wide variety of learning material • Emphasis on individual and small group instruction. • Relationship with the teacher as a facilitator rather than a lecturer • Evaluation about academic achievement that is meaningful to the student. • Research on open classrooms has concluded that they may encourage a better attitude toward school while only slightly lowering academic achievement.

  27. Guidelines for intervention • Provide options • Help gain perspectives • Gain self esteem • Unconditional positive regard • Non-directive • Uses reflection and paraphrase back to client.

  28. Assets of perspective • Person as a whole • Goes to the root of the problem • Leads to genuine self-knowledge • Offer a sense of hope • Respect of patient’s point of view

  29. Limitations of perspective • Too simple and unscientific • Fail to offer explicit theory of development • Romantically naïve. • Cannot be tested • Terms are vague

  30. Case Studies A PHENOMENOLOGICALCASESTUDY OF THE SOCIAL COGNITION OF ONE GIFTED ADOLESCENT IN SCHOOL Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Spring97, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p137, 12p Student Centered Teaching and Web design. Group counseling with Chronically Obese Students.

  31. References • Abnormal Psychology, Current perspectives. By Richard R. Bottzin and Joan Ross Acocella. Random House 1988 • The Assessment of Child And Adolescent Personality. By Howard Knoff. The Guildord Press. 1986