Humanistic Perspective Brooke Dahl Nancy Lindgren
Definition • Human capacity for choice and growth. • Humans have free will • Not fated to behave in specific ways. • Subjective experience of the world--how humans experience things, why they experience things, etc.
Humanistic Psychology • Emphasizes the study of the whole person. • Behavior is determined by perception of world around him. • Not a product of their environment • Internally directed an motivated to fulfill their potential.
According to humanistic psychologists, we are motivated not merely to survive, but to become better and better. This process is called self-actualization.
Origins • Middle ages • Began in the 15th century • Modern humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s.
Evolution • Humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s and complemented behaviorism and psychoanalysis with its focus on the individual as a whole person. • Continued to grow in the second half of the 20th century
Development of the field • Motivation and Personality -1954 • Humanistic Psychology – 1958 • Journal of Humanistic Psychology-1961 • American Association for Humanistic Psychology was organized- 1962 • First position paper presented in US-1963 • First graduate program was instituted at Sonoma State College, CA – 1963 • APA subdivision called Humanistic Psychology was created -1970. • First international conference in Holland - 1970
Key components of self-understanding • Self-actualization • Self fulfillment • Self-realization
Carl Rogers • Taught at University of Chicago • Taught at the University of Wisconsin • Believes that a fully adjusted person can symbolize any experience in the conscious verbalization.
Carl Rogers • 1902-1987 • Intersubjective Verification • Interest in counseling • Wrote The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939)
Abraham Maslow • 1908-1970 • Attended University of Wisconsin • Taught at Brooklyn College • 1951 served as the chair of the psychology dept.
Metaneeds & Metapathologies • Truth, rather than dishonesty • Goodness, rather than evil • Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity. • Unity, not arbitrariness or forced choice • Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life • Uniqueness, not bland uniformity • Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, or accident • Completion, rather than incompleteness • Justice & order, not injustice and lawlessness • Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity • Richness, not environmental impoverishment • Effortlessness, not strain • Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery • Self-sufficiency, not dependency • Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness
Erich Fromm • 1900-1980 • Autobiography: Beyond the Chains of Illusion. • Moved to US in 1934
Erich Fromm • 2 significant events that started him along his path. • 12 years old • 14 years old • Moved to Mexico to teach. He had done research into relationship between economic class and personality types.
Theory • Combination of Freud and Marx • Freedom • Transcend the determinism of Freud and Marx.
FROMM'S ORIENTATIONS TEST How well does each word apply to you? 5 (very well), 4, 3, 2, 1 (not at all).
Choice v. Determination • CHOICE
Characteristics--Healthy Personality • HEALTHY • Authenticity • Congruence • Freedom • Being • Search for meaning
Characteristics--Unhealthy Personality • UNHEALTHY • Conformity • Alienation • Fragmentation • Having • Search for happiness
Guidelines for assessing personality • “Non-directive” counseling • Play therapy • Assessment of self concept through rating scales • Q-sort Techniques • Interviews
Roots of the Humanistic Movement in Education • A. S. Neill is recognized as the first modern humanistic educator. • Neill founded the Summerhill school, an open education program in England. • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow laid the psychological framework for the open education movement in the US.
Humanistic Movement in Education • The basic objectives of humanistic education are to encourage students to: • Be self-directed and independent • Take responsibility for their learning • Be creative and interested in the arts • Be curious about the world around them.
Principles of Humanistic Education • 5 basic principles of humanistic education are: • Student’s learning should be self-directed • Schools should produce students who want & know how to learn. • Only form of meaningful evaluation is self-evaluation. • Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important to the learning process. • Students learn best in a non-threatening environment.
Humanistic Education in Practice • Characteristics of open classrooms • Freedom of choice in study • Ability to move freely around classroom • Access to wide variety of learning material • Emphasis on individual and small group instruction. • Relationship with the teacher as a facilitator rather than a lecturer • Evaluation about academic achievement that is meaningful to the student. • Research on open classrooms has concluded that they may encourage a better attitude toward school while only slightly lowering academic achievement.
Guidelines for intervention • Provide options • Help gain perspectives • Gain self esteem • Unconditional positive regard • Non-directive • Uses reflection and paraphrase back to client.
Assets of perspective • Person as a whole • Goes to the root of the problem • Leads to genuine self-knowledge • Offer a sense of hope • Respect of patient’s point of view
Limitations of perspective • Too simple and unscientific • Fail to offer explicit theory of development • Romantically naïve. • Cannot be tested • Terms are vague
Case Studies A PHENOMENOLOGICALCASESTUDY OF THE SOCIAL COGNITION OF ONE GIFTED ADOLESCENT IN SCHOOL Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Spring97, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p137, 12p Student Centered Teaching and Web design. Group counseling with Chronically Obese Students.
References • Abnormal Psychology, Current perspectives. By Richard R. Bottzin and Joan Ross Acocella. Random House 1988 • The Assessment of Child And Adolescent Personality. By Howard Knoff. The Guildord Press. 1986