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IT Can Drive Innovative Strategies

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  1. IT Can Drive Innovative Strategies • 1. The “I” vs. “T” in IT • 2. Frito-Lay Case • - Use of IT to Sustain Competitive Advantage • - Changes made to the Management Process • - Lessons on How to Get Payoff from IT Investment • 3. Anheuser Bush: Learns from Frito-Lay • Pfizer Could Have Learned to Reduce Bloated Costs • 4. FedEx Case • - IT Drives Innovative Business Model • - Used IT for Delivering Value-Adds to Customers • IT Strategies of UPS vs. FedEx: “Follower” vs. “First-Mover” • McKesson Case - IT was Key to Company’s Growth • Cardinal Health Case: Use of “I” to Grow Beyond a “Middleman” • Change Management: A “MUST-DO” for Successful implementation • - Lewin-Schein Model of Change • - Case Example: GE’s Wake-Up Call about Potential of the Net • - GE’s “Operating System” Enables Organizational Change

  2. The Business Environment Today - Two Key Factors 1. Globalization The liberalization of trade and regulatory regimes in many countries and the falling costs of transportation and communication are making the world economy more global. Markets are so heavily interconnected that ignoring interdependencies can only be at our peril. Advances in telecommunication and digital technology have further shrunk the globe to the point where “geography is now history”. Source CEO of Ranbaxy’s Address, Business India, Dec 28 – Jan 10, 1999

  3. The Business Environment Today - Two Key Factors 2. Knowledge-Based Competition Globalization has changed the rules of the game. Businesses no longer complete in the exclusive comfort of their domestic backyards, using capital and labor imbalances or regulatory perversities to further wealth creation. These approaches and techniques that served us well during the past few decades have now been pushed aside by technology and, increasingly, by knowledge as a basis for competition. - 40 years ago; Ghana & South Korea had nearly the same per capita income - by the early 1990s, Korea stood at 6 times Ghana, more than half the growth being attributed to Korea’s superior ability to use knowledge for transformations.

  4. Is IT Just a Back-Office Data Processing Function? “Historically, IS was regarded as a support function and treated as administrative overhead, but now technology has become entwined with all the classic functions of business… to such an extent that understanding its role is necessary for making intelligent and effective decisions about any other function.”

  5. Much Truth is Said in Jest! A man is flying in a hot air balloon and realizes he is lost. He reduces height and spots a man down below. He lowers the balloon further and shouts: “Excuse me, can you tell me where I am?” Man: “Yes, you’re in a hot air balloon, hovering 30 feet above this field.” Balloonist: “You must work in Information technology” Man: “I do. How did you know?” Balloonist: “Well, everything you have told me is technically correct, but it’s no use to anyone.” Man: “You must work in business.” Balloonist: “I do. How did you know?” Man: “Well, you don’t know where you are, or where you’re going, but you expect me to be able to help. You’re in the same position you were before we met, but now it’s my fault.”

  6. The Information Economy- The View from Two Different Lenses The Original Management Guru, Peter Drucker “From being organized around the flow of things and the flow of money, the economy is becoming organized around the flow of information.” Wall Street Journal, September 9, 1992 The Czar of the U.S. Economy, A. Greenspan IT has “begun to alter, fundamentally, the manner in which we do business and create economic value.” By enabling businesses to remove “large swaths of unnecessary inventory,” real-time information is accelerating productivity growth and raising living standards. This has contributed to the “greatest prosperity the world has ever witnessed.” Speech to the Gerald R. Ford Foundation in Grand Rapids, as quoted in Wall Street Journal, September 21, 1999

  7. Impact of IT IT is fundamentally transforming the way companies are run. The new economy is about the specific potential of IT to change the way businesses work and thereby yield a quantum shift in productivity. The computer, and especially now the Internet, can change how companies deal with suppliers and customers… The Net is helping customers to lower costs dramatically across their supply and demand chains, take their customer service into a different league, enter new markets, create additional revenue streams and redefine their business relationships. The Economist, June 24, 1999

  8. The “I” versus “T” in IT- Peter Drucker Pinpoints THE Issue So far, for 50 years, the information revolution has centered ... on the “T” in IT. The next information revolution asks: What is the MEANING of information, and what is its PURPOSE? And this is redefining the tasks to be done with the help of information, and with it, to redefining the institutions that do these tasks. Forbes ASAP, August 24, 1998 Information is data endowed with relevance and purpose. Converting data into information thus requires knowledge… So far, most computer users still use the new technology only to do faster what they have always done before, crunch conventional numbers. But as soon as a company takes the first tentative steps from data to information, its decision processes, management structure and even the way its work gets done begin to be transformed. Harvard Business Review, January-February, 1988

  9. Drug Companies Spend Big on Software(“Times of India” – Jan 2, 2004) • The 12 major pharma companies (46% of domestic market) spent Rs.114 crore on IT in 2002-03 … Expected to go up 6% to Rs.121 crore – about 1% of revenue – in 2003-04 (TCS Study) • “With research advancing at a break-neck pace, scientists are looking for way to better manage the vast volumes of data generated • Over 60 million pieces of data per molecule each year” • IT-intensive R&D can shave a year off the drug development time • Translates into $70 M for a niche drug and $365 M for a block- buster drug. • Urgent need to transform “data” into “intelligence” • Ranbaxy Labs installed an ERP software from Hummingbird … • “Our consolidation of enterprise-wide data including financial, sales and product information, empowered us to make faster and better decisions and real-time extended enterprise”

  10. The Frito-Lay CaseUse of IT to Sustain Competitive Advantage • Competitive Advantage of Frito-Lay was NOT IT- It was: Direct Sales to 350,000 Stores- Army of 13,000 salespeople with trucks- Competitors unable to match it • 50% share of the $15 billion salty-snacks U.S. market Staved off the threat from Anheuser-Busch’s Eagle Snacks...“Frito’s a fortress ... don’t try to impinge on Frito’s territory or you’ll get crushed.” Anheuser sold its plants to – who else? – Frito-Lay. Wall Street Journal, October 27, 1995

  11. Value of the Direct Sales Model F/ L Salespeople with Trucks • F/ L Plant • 40 Plants • 200 SKUs F/L Warehouse - 200+ W/ Hs Stores Purchases by Consumers Truck - Load Shipments • High Costs • - Operations of 200+ Warehouses • - Inventory Costs • - Cost of “Stales” in Warehouses & Stores • Big Benefit • - Know which SKUs are selling in each store • - Salesforce can sell the “Right SKU” to the Right Store at the Right Time • - Salesforce trained to rotate products – “older-date” packs moved to the front of the shelves – and stack them neatly to attract shoppers in the aisles Salesforce of Distributor Annheuser - Busch Plant Third - Party Distributor/ Wholesaler Stores Purchases by Consumers Truck - Load Shipments • Third – party Salesforce is NOT the same as Company Salesforce !

  12. IT Target- SUSTAIN the Competitive Advantage FOCUS ON: • Revenue Drivers to Increase Revenues • Cost Drivers to Reduce Costs • Improve Salesforce Productivity • Expand coverage by adding new stores without increasing the salesforce • Reduce “Stales” • Timely information on sales and inventory from stores can trigger corrective action to reduce stales • Micromarketing • Promote the “Right SKU in the Right Store at the Right Time” • Get more bang for the promotional dollars !

  13. The “T” Had to be Developed • Pioneered hand-held computers for used by 13,000 salespeople • Contracted with Fujitsu in early 1980s to develop the “T” • Rugged hardware had to be developed for use in trucks • Field-tested hardware in Texas and Minnesota to check whether it will work in extreme climatic conditions THAT WAS THE EASY PART! MORE DIFFICULT: How to get the Salesforce to Change?

  14. The Implementation Strategy - Key to Successful IT Innovation PILOT TEST IN A SELECTED SALES AREA IS A MUST - especially when the salesforce has to use a new IT tool  TEST WHETHER SALEFORCE BUYS-IN TO THE NEW TOOL - “GO” Roll it out to All Sales Areas - “NO GO” Back to the Drawing Board  SELECT MOST HUNGRY AREA: Receptive to Change - If “No Go”, Buy-In from Rest of Salesforce will be a BIG PROBLEM!  FRITO-LAY CHOSE THE “BEST”: The Los Angeles Sales Area  GOT “GO“ SIGNAL FROM PILOT TEST - Used LA Sales Staff in rollout to establish credibility with salesforce  TRAIN THE TRAINERS IN EACH SALES AREA - Minimizes Training Costs: More Effective

  15. Impact of Hand-Held Computers • Eliminated Paperwork of Salesforce- Time savings: 3 to 5 hours per week • BUT… Is That a Benefit?Frito-Lay Made It a Benefit!- Allayed salespeople’s fears of downsizing- Used time saved to grow revenues and reduce cost • A Side-Benefit, But Important for Salesforce- End-of-day reconciliation was easier, more accurate- “Over/short” accounting discrepancies were $4 million in 1985 and growing- Source of extreme frustration to salespeople

  16. “What’s In It for Me?”- Reduces Tedious Arithmetic at End of the Day Salesperson must reconcile each SKU’s daily sales from store invoices with the “Load-Out – Load-In” Sheet. A Huge Tangible Benefit:- Time saved in adding the sales figures for each SKU from the individual store invoices to get the total sales of the SKU (the “Sales to Stores” figure above)- No arithmetical errors in the adding process

  17. Management Process Had to be Changed to Capitalize on New Information Availability of timely information at the SKU level for each store enabled weeklyone-on-one meetings between first-line district sales managers and their salespeople If a salesperson's stales are running higher than mydistrict goal, we discuss what can be done to decrease them. We analyze sales returns to zero in on thestores and the SKUs with the most stales, and then decide whether to change the mix of products or their location in the store.

  18. The New “I” Enables Micromarketing Recently, I noticed red numbers (indicating reduced market share) for tortilla chips in our central business region. I punched up another screen display and located the problem: Texas. I kept punching up new screens and tracked the red numbers to a specific sales division and, finally, the chain of stores. The numbers pinpointed the problem area and, after additional research, revealed the culprit: the introduction of a generic store-branded product. We quickly formulated a counter-strategy and sales climbed again. Frito-Lay President

  19. How to Get Payoff from the IT Investment • Hardware investment - $40 million • Software investment - $100 million during 1984 - 88 To pay for it, Corporate Sales had to commit to reduce selling expenses from 22 cents on the dollar to 21 cents within a year of the handheld installation – increase sales at constant cost or reduce costs or a combination of the two By setting this target before the rollout, we focused the attention of each sales area on identifying ways to use the technology to change the way it did business and ensure that we achieved the anticipated benefits. - CEO of Frito-Lay

  20. Decentralization FacilitatedBy Frito-lay System Information support for 4 geographic regions with P&L responsibility Timely, accurate information for top management - NOT massaged & sanitized information Frito-Lay System Impact: 60% of corporate decisions pushed to regions

  21. DECENTRALIZATION REQUIRES DECENTRALIZED INFORMATION BEFORE Information took weeks to wend its way back to the 32 Frito-Lay Divisional Sales Managers from the variety of databases in Headquarters, if it got there at all. AFTER PC in the Division provides information on: • Comparison of brand / pack sales by type of store • Analysis of weekly performance by districts • Ranking of sales reps’ performance (about 350 in each district) • How Frito-Lay stacks up against competition in market shares, prices, promotion, etc.

  22. EMPOWERING OF EMPLOYEES Organizations have to be fast, flexible and responsive to be competitive in a dynamic and complex business environment Decision-making authority has to be passed to the "front lines"

  23. PREREQUISITE FOR EMPOWERMENT PROVISION OF RELEVANT INFORMATION TO ALL LEVELS TO EFFECTIVELY FUNCTION IN THEIR JOBS What sets us apart is that we train people to be merchants. We let them see all the numbers so they know exactly how they're doing within the store and within the company; they know their cost, their markup, their overhead, and their profits. It's a big responsibility and a big opportunity. Wal-Mart's "Store within a Store" Sam Walton, Wal-Mart CEO

  24. EIS IS THE KEY TOA BALANCED ORGANIZATION that leverages the benefits of both centralized and decentralized decision-making and control systems. Empowering does not mean wholesale relinquishing of authority to lower levels. There must still be management by higher level executives. Top management must have access to information that is not massaged and sanitized.

  25. An Invaluable Benefit"Management by Walking Around“ is Feasible • Frito-Lay CEO can make a "computer tour" of operations • “Can view the performance of each of our managers and salespeople around the country“ • Can fire off an electronic-mail memo if the view is not good or contact manager to congratulate on the good view

  26. The Frito-Lay System- An Integrated Everyone’s Information System • Delivers timely and consistent information to ALL levels • of management and ALL functions: • A sales support system for field personnel • An Executive Information System for the top 200 executives • A market analysis and profitability reporting system for corporate staff • Additional support systems for key functions: purchasing, manufacturing and logistics

  27. JUSTIFYING THE IT INVESTMENT • BENEFITS NOT EASY TO QUANTIFY • LOOK AT THE COSTS IN RELATION TO - Cost of NOT Having the “I” at ALL Levels To Make Smarter Decisions • IT CAN PROVIDE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IF • That “IF” depends on WHAT IT is used for. “We’ve invented… $40 million for hardware and software so for, and $15 million per year to keep it rolling… I believe this will give us real competitive advantage.” - Frito-Lay CEO

  28. Major Payoffs from The Frito-Lay Enterprise System • Able to tie manufacturing to consumer purchases from the stores • Reduced “stales” by 50% • Micromarketing optimizes margin • Able to target local demand patternswith just the right sales promotion • Domestic revenues: $3B in 1986 $4.2B in 1989 Compress the time taken for information flows…. Sales data from the hand-held computers of salespeople provide the foundation for “time synchronizing” the entire business process: Purchasing Manufacturing Logistics Sales

  29. Some Lessons • Modern IT is a marvel, but to realize the potential, you have to USE it - to make each person more effective and efficient. • “Manumation” – mere automation of manual processes – will not generate the anticipated payoff from the IT investment. • Focus IT on Revenue Drivers and Cost Drivers. • Data by itself is worthless • – It has to be converted into Actionable Information. • 5. Availability of good quality ‘I” does not automatically guarantee its use. • Problem: What do we do with the new “I”? • The Management Process has to be changed, including the Performance Measurement and Reward Systems, to capitalize on the new “I”; and Training to implement the new process. • 6. Get the Sequencing of IT projects Right !

  30. Anheuser Busch Learns from Frito-Lay- Becomes a Data-Driven Company • Chairman, August Busch III, changed the rules of the beer industry, a technological laggard, in 1997 • Amended contracts with distributors (about 700 in the U.S.) to demand that they start collecting data on: … how much shelf-space their retailers devoted to various beer brands, including competitors’ brands … which ones had the most visible displays … which locations had the displays … etc, etc. • Sales reps of distributors equipped with handheld computers for inputting data when they “walk the store” – the handhelds are jacked into the rep’s cell phone for wireless data uploads to the servers in the warehouses

  31. “ It’s Not Just Collecting Data…Anheuser Busch is Smart in Figuring Out How to Use It” • Developed BudNet to collect the data in a nightly nation wide sweep • of the distributors’ servers • … Use the data to draw a picture each morning of what brands are selling in which packages in which stores using which medley of displays, discounts and promotions • … Then sends “new marching orders” to its distributors “ Distributor- and store-level data has become the lifeblood of our organization” “ If Anheuser-Busch loses shelf-space in a store in Clarksville, Tennessee, they know it right away. They’re better at this game than anyone, even Coca-Cola”. Bottom-Line: Anheuser has posted double-digit profit gains for 20 straight quarters, while its nearest competitors, Miller and Coors, have flattened “ Brewers and distributors with a clear data- driven focus will have a distinct competitive advantage”. August Busch IV, President for Domestic Operations

  32. Pfizer’s Bloated Cost Structure- Belongs to a Different Era “Every weekday, some 38,000 sales reps fan out around the globe. Armed with briefcases full of free drug samples, reams of clinical data, and lavish expense accounts for wining and dining their quarry, the reps infiltrate doctors’ offices and hospitals. Their goal: to persuade doctors to make Pfizer drugs the treatment of choice for their patients’ aches and pains. Equally important: Pfizer’s $3B Annual Ad Budget – behind only GM, P&G and Time Warner. A pricey array of prime-time commercials and glossy magazine ads show vibrant people freed from the threats of heart disease, hay fever, and a dismal sex life. Sure, consumers can’t go out and buy this stuff. It has to be prescribed by a doctor. But Pfizer and the industry have learned that stoking demand among consumers puts irresistible pressure on doctors. That’s why Pfizer is now the fourth-largest advertiser in the land.” Source: Business Week, Feb 28, 2005

  33. A HUGE Pain for Pfizer- The Sales Army • Largest Sales Force in the Pharma Industry - 11,000 people in the U.S., 38,000 worldwide (roughly the size of 3 army divisions !) • Annual Cost: $170,000 per sales rep - Including car, computer and benefits • S & A Expenses: $16:9B in 2004, Twice R&D Cost • Gross Profits in 2004: $45 B; $1.2 M per Sales Rep - A big-selling drug can generate fantastic margins as sales ramp up e.g., Celebrex: 90% Margin; $3B Gross Profits - If Celebrex gets yanked from the market, like VIOXX, profit per Sales Rep drops to $1.1 M … a 7% decline in productivity • Future Does Not Look Rosy ! - Sales estimated to DECLINE by 1.5% per year through 2010 Source: Business Week, Feb. 28, 2005

  34. Massive Sales ForceCan Quickly Become a Massive Millstone • Backlash from Doctors • Rivals emulated Pfizer and increased their salesforces over the years – a sales arm race • Number of Sales Reps in the U.S.: 100,000 • Doctors beseiged with so many sales reps on the prowl • “We’ve had multiple times where we’d see three reps from Pfizer in one day.” • Started to institute policies to restrict when sales people could visit and where in the office they could talk to doctors • Return on Sales Investment Has Also Slackened • As blockbuster drugs have lost patent protection • New drugs have been slow to take their places • Pfizer Signaled the End of an Era • Cut 20% of its U.S. Sales Force in 2007 … 2,000 people Source: Wall Street Journal, Nov. 29, 2006

  35. The Federal Express Case- IT Drives Innovative Business Model • Founded in 1971, CEO states:“IT is absolutely the key to our operations” • Unique Value Proposition – Guaranteed overnight package delivery • - Time-certain Transportation vs. Holding Inventory • Pioneered airbill bar coding for package tracking - information about the package is as important as the package itself. • CEO’s Quality Goals:“100% on-time deliveries, 100% accurate information on every shipment and 100% customer satisfaction.”Won the 1990 Malcolm Baldridge Quality Award The measurement system is the key to our quality effort ... We had to come up with a system that actually measured our performance on every transaction - regardless of the fact that we are talking of hundreds of thousands of transactions.

  36. Federal Express Error Index 12 Service Quality Indicators are monitored daily, e.g.: • how many packages were delivered on wrong day? • how many late ? • how many damaged ? • how many billing corrections ? The 12 indicators are weighted judgmentallyaccording to their importance to the customer to produce the error index.

  37. FedEx was an Aggressive First-Mover In Using IT • : COSMOS, the centralized computer system for package tracking on a real-time basis • : Launched a proprietary and then-revolutionary data network called Digitally Assisted Dispatch Systems (DADS) which enables dispatchers to use text messages to change drivers’ routes and pickup requests – still in use, DADS led to a 30% increase in productivity, the first day it was used. • 1984 : Standalone DOS-based automated shipping system for customers who ship over 5 packages a day • 1986 : Present generation of wireless handhelds to capture package data via a bar-code scan, which is downloaded to COSMOS when the handheld is inserted in the DADS unit in the truck. • 1998 : On-Line package tracking at – saw the Net as a low-cost alternative to call centers for reducing costs and improving customer service

  38. FedEx Gets IT! “We consider our IT division a line organization; it’s an operating unit that is absolutely involved in the day-to-day operation of the company. We measure its performance. I’m just as close to the IT division as to our sales division -- and the salespeople are the ones who bring in all the bacon.” 1990 1998 Revenues $8 B $ 13.25 B Daily Package Volume 1.5 M 3.0 M Employees 94,000 143,000 IT Expenditure $243 M $ 1 B

  39. FedEx Used IT to Expand its Core CompetenceFrom Moving Boxes to Bytes All major transportation and delivery companies from United Parcel Service to Ryder System are betting big onIT. The U.S. Postal Service has just announced a partner-ship with DHL for express deliveries from 11 cities in the U.S. to Europe. The package tracking information capa-bilities pioneered by FedEx have become industry norms rather than a competitive advantage. FedEx shifted to new pastures - Used IT to provide logistics services, for big manufacturers and retailers around the world

  40. A Win-Win Tie-up with National Semi-Conductor Nat Semi’s products from 3 factories and 3 subcontractors in Asia are shipped to a FedEx distribution warehouse in Singapore. Nat Semi’s order-processing system on an IBM mainframe in Santa Clara, California, sends a daily batch of orders over a dedicated line directly to FedEx’s inventory manage-ment system running on a Tandem machine in Memphis. FedEx essentially takes over and fulfills the order from the Singapore warehouse, and sends an execution record to Nat Semi.

  41. The Value-Add for Nat Semi National Semi-Conductor reduced... ... Average Customer Delivery Cycle from 4 weeks to 7 days ... Distribution costs from 2.9% of sales to 1.2% National Semi-Conductor eliminated... ... 7 regional warehouses in the U.S., Europe and Asia FedEx has helped us prove that quicker cycle times and reduced costs are not mutually exclusive. It’s been five years of hard work and a painful change process, but we’ve succeeded. We used to have to deal with so many different nodes in the process -- freight forwarders, customs agents, handling companies, delivery companies, airlines. Now FedEx is our one-stop shop.

  42. A Lurking Threat for FedEx… From the Net! • Overnight Delivery: 50% of FedEx revenues - 25% of this business: Letter-size envelopes - Additional 15%: Paper documents such as contracts, legal briefs, etc. • Alternative: Digital Delivery - Transmit documents electronically, or - Post them online; download when needed “For now, the impact on FedEx is less than catastrophic. But online security is improving. And businesses are starting to adopt contractual devices such as digital signatures. As these technologies mature, the electronic transit of everything from real-estate closings to legal settlements is poised to explode – at the expense of shipping” Source: Business Week, May 21, 2001, pp. 67-68

  43. UPS: From A Humble Seattle Messenger ServiceCompany Founded in 1907 to “Big Brown” Today • A traditionally insular and conservative enterprise with a 1950s’ style engineering culture well into the 1990s • Still, managed to reinvent itself time and again to keep growing • Started overnight delivery by air only in 1985 • Set up a logistics services unit in 1994 to manage the supply chains of customers • Went public only in November 1999 • Today: World’s Largest Shipping Carrier • 2003 revenue: $33.5B vs. $24B for FedEx, but more profitable than FedEx • Annual Exp. on IT: $1B, same as FedEx, but FedEx revenues are 30% less • Aggressively moving into supply chain management for big companies such as Ford, HP, Nike, … , and deeper into Asia where the fast-growing factory sector is opening new doors for UPS • “What Can Brown Do For You – Synchronizing the World of Commerce”

  44. UPS Adopted a “Follower” IT Strategy • Started building the IT infrastructure in 1985 • Carefully followed FedEx’s tracks - Learned not just how to copy FedEx’s systems, - But often how to make them better and cheaper • Example: Logistics Management Software - UPS took 15 years to build a system comparable to FedEx’s renowned COSMOS systems - But UPS chose a wiser approach: Built a more open system that made it easier for customers to incorporate into their existing systems than FedEx’s proprietary software that customers were forced to adopt

  45. UPS Adopted a “Follower” IT Strategy • Spent more than $20B on IT since 1985 • Slow Copycat Approach to IT Paid Off - By late 1990s, some big suppliers had begun to shift their logistics contracts from FedEx to UPS - One company in particular: National Semiconductor! - UPS also handles more shipments from Internet retailers (55%) vs. FedEx (10%)

  46. Some IT Firsts for UPS…After a Late Start • Offer vital shipping information to customers via a wireless device • - Customers can track packages, find the nearest UPS drop-off location, calculate shipping rate and find transit times via virtually any web- enabled cell phone, PDA or pager • 2. Extend wireless tracking around the globe in their native languages, including traditional and simplified Chinese, Korean and Japanese, as well as in English – the largest private wireless network in the world • Provide a range of online financial services tools to companies involved in global trade! • - Track the flow of funds • - Serve both exporters and importers by electronically automating the creation, execution and management of Letters of Credit • - Track online the daily movement of C.O.D payments into their bank accounts

  47. UPS Reinventing Itself Again- As a Logistics Outsourcer • About 75% of UPS’ business still comes from small-package deliveries in the U.S. -But, by the mid-1990s, plain-vanilla parcel delivery was a mature business • “The small package market is about $60 B in the U.S. whereas the world-wide supply chain market is about $3 T. So that’s where we see much of our growth… Let our customers focus on their core business and let us run the distribution networks”. …UPS CEO • Spent more than $1 B since the year 2000 to buy 25 companies involved in freight-forwarding, customs clearance, finance and other logistics services

  48. UPS Reinventing Itself Again- As a Logistics Outsourcer • Able to help companies to manage all three flows of commerce: goods, information and funds • Boosted investment in IT Completed a 7-year, $1 B expansion of tech-driven air-hub in Louisville, KY. In 2002, the most expensive project in the company’s history Doubled the size of the hub to 4M square feet (the equivalent of more than 80 football fields) and automated the express package sorting process with advanced customized technology - 304,000 packages per hour or over 84 packages per second

  49. The McKesson Case- IT was Key to Company’s Growth • Foremost McKesson: A Pharmaceutical Wholesaler-Distributor • Looked at IT from the perspective of the Value-Added Chain • Used IT to execute each step efficiently and effectively • Payoff from using IT:More accurate tracking of its principal asset: inventory, More effective use of employees - they can handle more items. Cash turned over more frequently. Selling to drug stores Distri-buting Purchasing from Mfrs Ware-housing Receiving Packaging

  50. Next: Used IT to Link with Customers Ware-housing Distri-buting Drug Stores Purchasing Packaging Receiving Selling • Put computer terminals in drug stores • Customers entered orders directly in return for which McKesson guaranteed delivery within a certain specified time • Customers did order-entry for McKesson but their inventory levels were lower now