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Dysrythmias & Anti-Dysrhythmics. Dysrhythmias. Rhythm bad in the heart: Whitewater rafting Electrical impulses coordinate heart Reduction in Cardiac Output PEA Asystole. Components of an ECG Wave. P wave QRS complex T wave PR interval QT interval ST segment. Analysis Heart rate

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Dysrythmias & Anti-Dysrhythmics


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    1. Dysrythmias &Anti-Dysrhythmics

    2. Dysrhythmias • Rhythm bad in the heart: Whitewater rafting • Electrical impulses coordinate heart • Reduction in Cardiac Output • PEA • Asystole

    3. Components of an ECG Wave

    4. P wave QRS complex T wave PR interval QT interval ST segment Analysis Heart rate Rhythm (reg/irreg) P wave Intervals: PR, QRS T wave (ST segment) EKG Parameters

    5. Dysrhythmias • Etiology • Electrolyte imbalances • Medications • Hypoxia • Elevated preload • Aging • Manifestation • ECG, ↓ Cardiac Output

    6. Impulse Formation Ectopy Atrial rhythms (Supraventricular) Junctional rhythms Ventricular rhythms Types Fibrillation Flutter Tachy Brady Slowed Conduction AV blocks 1st degree 2nd degree Mobitz I 2nd degree Mobitz II 3rd Degree BB blocks (don’t need to worry about) Dysrhythmias

    7. Dysrthymias • “Sinus arrythmias” • Tachy/brady • Ectopy(early contraction) • Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC) • Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) • Atrial rhythms • Atrial tachy • Atrial flutter, Atrial fibrillation

    8. Dyrhthymias • Junctional rhythms • Ventricular rhythms • Ventricular tachycardia* • Pulse or no Pulse, that is the question! • Ventricular fibrillation

    9. Dysrhythmias • 1° AVB block • 2° AVB block Mobitz I • 2° AVB block Mobitz II • 3° AVB block* • Ventricular block (BBB) • Wolf-Parkinson-White: tx with CCBs

    10. Anti-dysrhythmic Therapy • Antidysrhythmic therapy is declining overall • All anti-dysrhythmic drugs may increase risk of death • Implantable defibrillators • Ablation technqiques

    11. Electrical Properties of the Heart • SA node  AV node  His  Purkinje Myocardium

    12. Antidysrhythmic Classifications • Class I: Sodium Channel Blockers • Class II: Beta blockers • Class III: Potassium Channel Blockers • Class IV: Calcium Channel Blockers • Non classed drugs

    13. Class I Antidysrhythmics • Three subclasses: all block sodium channel • IA: delay repolarization (don’t use) • IB: accelerate repolarization (only one drug) • IC: prodysrhythmic (don’t use)

    14. Class IB • Lidocaine (IV) • Enhances repolarization (no QT prolongation) • No anticholinergic effects • Only works for ventricular dysrhythmias • Adverse effects • CNS, toxicity: seizures, resp arrest

    15. Class II: Beta blockers • Propanolol • Acebutolol • Esmolol • Sotalol: also blocks Potassium (class III) • Adverse effects (you should already know these, same as all beta blockers) • Heart failure, AV block, sinus arrest

    16. Class III: Potassium ChannelBlockers • Amiodarone (PO, IV) • Book lies: used for all kinds of dysrhythmias • First line for V-fib maintenance • Works against both atrial and ventricular • Adverse: ↓HR, lung damage, visual impairment

    17. Class IV: Calcium Channel Blockers • Only non-dihidopyridines • Verapamil & diltiazem • Slow SA node automaticity • Delay AV conduction • Reduction of myocardial contractility • Adverse effects • ↓HR, AV block, Heart failure, hypotension, constipation

    18. Other Antidysrhythmics • Adenosine • Short half life, termination of paroxysmal SVT • Digoxin • Decreases conduction through AV node, increases Vagal tone, decreases SA automaticity • Ibutilide

    19. Terms and Concerns • Supraventricular • Prodysrhythmic effects • QT prolongation: Torsades de pointes

    20. Supraventricular Rhythms • A-Tach (SVT) • A flutter • A fib • DC cardioversion: TEE • Beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, digoxin • Control Rhythm • Anticoagulants

    21. Cardiac Glycosides: Digoxin • Derived from digitalis pupurea & lanata • Digoxin is only one in U.S. (digitoxin) • Troublesome drug • Decreases morbidity but not mortality • May cause increased mortality in women • Narrow therapeutic range; prodysrhythmic

    22. Digoxin • + inotropic effect • Inhibits Na-K ATPase --> calcium accumulates in myocytes • Competes with K+ for binding sites • Low K+ will enhance toxicity • High K+ reduces effectiveness • - Dromotropic effects • SA node, AV node, ventricular conduction • - Chronotropic effects: vagal stimulation

    23. Digoxin • Therapeutic Uses • Heart Failure • A. fib, A. flutter • Atrial Tachycardia

    24. Adverse Effects • Dysrhythmias • May mimic ANY dysrhythmia • If in doubt, hold digoxin • Bradycardia • Monitor K+ • Monitor dig levels • Other: Anorexia, Nausea, Fatigue, visual

    25. Interactions • Diuretics: K+ • ACE inhibitors: K+ • Sympathomimetics • Increase levels of digoxin • Quinidine • Verapamil

    26. Kinetics • Administration: • Apical pulse  < 60BPM, hold • PO: 0.125 - 0.375 mg • Loading dose: 0.4 – 0.6 mg (IV) • Maintenance: 0.125 – 0.5 mg (IV) • Distribution: 23% bound to albumin • Elimination: renal • Must check renal function

    27. Heart Failure & Cardiomyopathies

    28. Heart Failure • Failure of the heart to meet metabolic demands of the body • Supply O2 • Supply nutrients • Transport waste to liver and kidneys • Acute or Chronic

    29. Heart Failure • May be left or right sided failure • Congestive (left) • Cor Pulmonale (right) • Two basic forms • Systolic dysfunction • Diastolic dysfunction

    30. Systolic/Diastolic Dysfunction • Failure of the heart to pump efficiently • Ischemic Heart Disease, Idiopathic, Viral/Bacterial infections, valve disease • Failure of heart to fill adequately • Valvular, pericarditis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy

    31. General Heart Failure • Heart fails to meet body's demand for oxygen • Epinephrine/Norepinephrine release • Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone • Vaso, fluid • Cardiac remodeling • Fibrosis, apoptosis, necrosis, hypertrophy

    32. General Heart Failure • Cardiac Dilation • Frank Starling's Law of the Heart • Increased Sympathetic Tone • Water Retention • Competing neurohormones • ANP, BNP, Ang II, Aldosterone, Epi • Decompensation

    33. Heart Failure Manifestations • High blood pressure, tachycardia, S3 • Edema, Pulmonary Edema • Dyspnea, DOE, activity intolerance • Heart vs. disuse • Nervousness, irritability • Weight gain

    34. HF Classifications • NYHA • Class I: no limitations • Class II: slight limitations • Class III: Marked limitation • Class IV: Symptoms occur at rest • Note: Diseases that affect oxygenation will exacerbate HF symptoms

    35. Heart Failure Treatment • The “Big Five” • ACE inhibitor/ARB • Aldactone • Digoxin • Lasix • Beta blocker • Other • Inotropics, BNP, isosorbide plus hydralazine

    36. Other Drugs • Sympathomimetics (Inotropics) • Dopamine • Dobutamine • Norepinephrine • BNP • The secret weapon • Used to assess and to treat (Nesiritide) • IV only: lowers catecholamine release, vasodilation, diuresis

    37. Managing HF Patients • Class I: life style, ACE inhibitors, ETOH • Class II: add beta blocker if <EF or MI • Class III: Diuretic, Aldactone, Digoxin • Avoid antidysrhythmics, NSAIDS, CCBs • Exercise • Class IV: hospitalization: BNP, sympathomimetics

    38. Final Considerations • Blood Pressure Changes • Patient Education