A car is to gasoline as your body is to • your stomach. • your kidneys. • food. • enzymes.
The energy to perform actions, as well as the materials from which body cells and tissues are made, comes from • cellulose. • oxygen. • food. • blood.
The energy available in food can be measured by • first determining which nutrients the body needs. • burning the food. • tracing chemical pathways. • all of the above.
About how many kilocalories does the average teenager need per day? • 100 to 200 • 500 to 600 • 2200 to 2800 • 10,000
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to • raise the temperature of the body by 1° Celsius. • raise the temperature of 1 g of fat by 1° Celsius. • raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1° Celsius. • none of the above
Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair, and maintenance are called • enzymes. • nutrients. • ATP. • Calories.
Inorganic nutrients that the body needs are called • lipids. • proteins. • vitamins. • minerals.
Which of the following foods do NOT contain polysaccharides? • grains • potatoes • meats • vegetables
The American Heart Association recommends a diet with a maximum of • 40 percent of Calories from fat, of which only 20 percent should be from unsaturated fats. • 30 percent of Calories from unsaturated fat, in addition to 10 percent from saturated fats. • 50 percent of Calories from saturated fats. • 30 percent of Calories from fat, of which only 10 percent should be from saturated fats.
The raw materials that the body needs for growth and repair come from • proteins. • unsaturated fats. • carbohydrates. • water.
Proteins are polymers of • lipids. • unsaturated fats. • amino acids. • vitamins.
When a doctor suggests following a diet low in saturated fats, which of the following forms of oil is a preferred choice to use in cooking? • oils with single bonds between their carbon atoms • vegetable oil • animal fats • butter
What is the minimum amount of water you should drink every day? • 0.5 liter • 1 liter • 2 liters • 3 liters
Which of the following fluids is made up mostly of water? • blood • lymph • other body fluids • all of the above
Water is lost from the body by each of the following EXCEPT • sweating. • urinating. • respiration. • circulation.
What can occur if a person does not take in enough water to replace what is lost? • dehydration • circulatory problems • nervous system problems • all of the above
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the process of sweating? • Sweating is more likely to occur on hot days than cool days. • Sweating is likely to occur after strenuous exercise. • Evaporation of sweat warms the body. • Excessive sweating can lead to dehydration.
The Food Guide Pyramid advises a person to eat more • meat than dairy products. • grains than meat. • dairy products than vegetables. • dairy products than grains.
Which of the following food groups is NOT found in a sandwich of only bread, ham, and mayonnaise? • fats, oils, and sweets • milk, yogurt, and cheese • meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts • bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
How many food groups make up the Food Guide Pyramid? • four • five • six • seven
The trend of the Food Guide Pyramid is that the majority of the food in your diet should be from • the group(s) at the top. • the group(s) at the bottom. • the group(s) in the middle. • all of the groups in the same proportion.
Which of the following food groups contain few valuable vitamins? • fats, oils, and sweets • milk, yogurt, and cheese • vegetables • fruit
What “food tube” carries food between the pharynx and the stomach? • small intestine • epiglottis • esophagus • large intestine
Which of the following would NOT be found in the stomach? • mucus • pepsin • villi • hydrochloric acid
Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas? • produces hormones that regulate blood sugar levels • produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids • produces bile • produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
What is one of the roles of the pancreas in nutrition? • absorb nutrients • churn food • dissolve food • neutralize acids
What enzyme found in saliva breaks chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in starches? • amylase • chyme • pepsin • hydrochloric acid
Where does the process of chemical digestion begin? • stomach • esophagus • small intestine • mouth
What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve? • absorption of nutrients by villi • pepsin and bile • strong muscular contractions • bile and pancreatic fluid
The stomach breaks down food into a soft, partially digested mixture called • pepsin. • chyme. • amylase. • bile.
Through which structure do wastes pass into the rectum? • duodenum • large intestine • small intestine • villus
Water is extracted from digested food in the body primarily by the • bladder. • gallbladder. • large intestine. • pancreas.
Look at Figure 38–1. Clean, filtered blood is returned to circulation through the • renal artery. • renal vein. • urinary bladder. • urethra.
In what structure in Figure 38–1 do filtration and reabsorption occur? • kidney • renal vein • urinary bladder • ureter
The function of the excretory system is to control homeostasis and • break down nutrients. • remove wastes. • absorb nutrients. • prevent infection.
The main organs of the excretory system are the • kidneys. • lungs. • intestines. • ureters.
Which of the following is NOT part of a nephron? • urethra • renal vein • glomerulus • Bowman’s capsule
The activity of the kidneys is controlled by hormones and by the • volume of nutrients. • volume of filtrate. • composition of the blood. • composition of the urine.
When the kidneys detect an increase in salt, they respond by • excreting less salt in urine. • returning more salt to the blood by filtration. • returning more salt to the blood by reabsorption. • returning less salt to the blood by reabsorption.
Which of the following controls the activity of the kidneys? • the composition of the blood • regulatory hormones that are released in response to the composition of blood • both a and b • none of the above
What percentage of the filtrate’s water that enters Bowman’s capsule is reabsorbed into the blood? • 100 percent • 99 percent • 50 percent • less than 25 percent
In the kidneys, both useful substances and wastes are removed from the blood by • reabsorption. • excretion. • dialysis. • filtration.
The process of dialysis • carries urine to the urinary bladder. • pumps blood throughout the body. • returns filtered blood to the body. • forces water into cells and tissues by osmosis.
Dialysis performs the function of the • liver. • ureter. • kidneys. • urinary bladder.
What materials are removed from the blood through dialysis? • urea and excess salts • chyme • amylase and pepsin • none of the above
In a label displaying the “Calorie” content of food, the unit is actually the kilocalorie. _________________________ • True • False
Simple and complex carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. _________________________ • True • False
The bulk supplied by fats helps muscles to keep food and wastes moving through the digestive system. _________________________ • True • False
Every cell in the human body needs protein because this is the material in which many of the body’s processes, including chemical reactions, take place. _________________________ • True • False
Following the Food Guide Pyramid, you should have 6–11 servings of the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group every day. _________________________ • True • False