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Prof . Geoff Marcy. Jupiter and Europa. Saturn and Enceladus. Textbook : The Cosmic Perspective Bennett et al. (2010) Purchase Bookstore version to get kit for homework: MasteringAstronomy www.masteringastronomy.com www.masteringastronomy.com

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## Prof . Geoff Marcy

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**Prof. Geoff Marcy**Jupiter and Europa Saturn and Enceladus**Textbook:**The Cosmic Perspective Bennett et al. (2010) Purchase Bookstore version to get kit for homework: MasteringAstronomy www.masteringastronomy.com www.masteringastronomy.com See instructions at end of this lecture Reading this week and next week: Chapters 1 and 2 “Our place in the Universe “ & “Discovering the Sky” Homework: Due every Friday at 6pm Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Assignments: due Friday Aug 31 at 6pm Tuesday Sept. 4 @ 6pm 5% off for each wrong try. 2% for a hint. Course ID: THEPLANETSFALL2012**Description of Course**• Tour of the Solar System, the Space Program and the physics, chemistry, geology, and experiments and reasoning that explains it all. • Observations and space missions. • Learn physical and chemical processes that formed and continue • to shape the Solar System: Past, Present and Future. • Intended for Non-Science Majors (light on math) • Objectives of Course • Learn the process of careful thinking and reasoning • Work with others: group reasoning • Learn to estimate answers with a factor of 2 • Basic Science: • Concepts of physical, chemical & biological sciences: • Force, Energy, Atoms, Nuclei, and DNA • How to calculate with very large and small numbers**12 Discussion Sections**• 1 hour: All startthis week. • Review, Clarification, Homework Help. Sign up on Telebears • 101 Wed 9-10A, 265 McCone Hall: Ben Legg • 102 Wed 1-2P, 264 Evans Hall: Lea Hirsch • 103 Wed 2-3P, 264 Evans Hall: Tess McEnulty • 104 Wed 3-4P, 241 Cory Hall: Tess McEnulty • 105 Th 2-3P, 264 Evans Hall: Lea Hirsch • 106 Tu 2-3P, 264 Evans Hall: Tess McEnulty • 107 Th 11-12P, 264 Evans Hall: Ryan Turner • 108 Tu 11-12P, 264 Evans Hall: Ryan Turner • 109 Tu 12-1P, 264 Evans Hall: Drummond Fielding • 110 Th 12-1P, 264 Evans Hall: Lea Hirsch • 111 W 11-12P, 264 Evans Hall: Ben Legg • 112 Wed 12-1P, 264 Evans Hall: Drummond Fielding**Observing Project #1**Two choices A) Chart the position and shape of the moon. Sketch where the moon is located relative to nearby buildings. Also sketch the shape of the moon. Mark which direction is south. Note the time and day on the sketch. Wait 2-5 days, and do it again. (Hint: the moon is up now from 7pm-midnight) Turn in both sketches, with time and date of observation. Write three to four sentences about any change you saw in the position or shape. B) Sketch where the Sun sets, relative to buildings. Wait 4-10 days. Sketch where the Sun sets again. Turn in both sketches, with time and date of observation. Write three sentences about any change in the position of sunset. Did it change? What direction? By how many degrees (approx.)? (The sun has an angular size of 0.5 degrees in diameter.) Due in class, Thursday Sept. 6 1 page maximum; Handwritten is fine.**Course material on bSpace:http://bspace.berkeley.edu**• Syllabus • Lecture slides • Assignments: reading, homework, observing projects • Course information**Last Time ::**The Solar System**The Solar System**Inner Solar System Outer Solar System**Overview**Our place in the Universe 13 billion Light Years**The Solar System:Sun and 8 Planets Moons, Rings,**Asteroids, Comets, and Dust**Milky Way Galaxy**200 Billion Stars Photo taken from Earth You Are Here**Our Milky Way Galaxy**Our Sun moves relative to the other stars in the local Solar neighborhood. Our Sun and the stars orbit around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy every 230 million years.**The ``Local Group”**of Galaxies 100,000 Light Years The Galactic Neighborhood**And outward…**10 Million Light Years**B**The Universe: All matter and energy > 100 Billion Galaxies**B**Astronomical Numbers Best to use Exponential Notation 103 = 1000 Thousand 106 = 1,000,000 Million 109 = 1,000,000,000 Billion 1012 = 1,000,000,000,000 Trillion Also: 10–3 = 1/1000 = 0.001 Exponential notation is handy: 10N x 10M = 10(N+M) Example: 103x106 = 109 thousand million billion**Interactive Quiz**B How many stars in our visible Universe? 1012 (1 million million) 1018 (1 billion billion) 1022 infinite**Interactive Quiz**B How many stars in our visible Universe? 1012 (1 million million) 1018 (1 billion billion) 1022 infinite Number of Stars in a galaxy: ~100 billion = 1011 Number of galaxies in Universe: 100 billion = 1011**Federal**B There are 1011 stars in the galaxy. That used to be a huge number. But it's only a hundred billion. It's less than the national deficit! We used to call them astronomical numbers. Now we should call them economical numbers. Richard Feynman**B**In 2005, the National Debt was $7.6 Trillion Federal Debt = $7.6 x 1012 U.S. Population = 300 x 106 Calculate Your Personal Debt: $7.6 x 1012 / 3 x 108= $2.5 x104 = $25,000 $25,000 per person in 2005. Trillions of Dollars 02 03 04 05 Debt Total**B**Population of France: 65 million Loss per person: $7x109 / 6.5x107 = $107 Transfer of 350 million Euros Population of Germany: 75 million Loss per person: 4.66 Euros -- Cheap!!**B**Population of US: 300 million Cost per person: $7.87x1011 / 3x108 = $2623**B**All UC campus have 200,000 students. How much will your annual fees increase? $100 $250 $1000 $2500 5×108 / 2×105=2.5×103=$2500**B**Distance, time and number : Radius of our Galaxy: 6,000,000,000,000,000,000 m = Radius of a Hydrogen atom: 0.00000000005 m= Time for one vibration of an oxygen molecule, O2: 0.00000000000001s = Age of the Universe: 470,000,000,000,000,000s = Scientific notation: 6 x 1018 m 0.5 x 10–10 m 1 x 10–14 s 4.7 x 1017 s = 14 billion years**B**• SI (Systeme International) Units • Base units: 1 meter (m) length ~ 3.3 ft • 1 kilogram (kg) mass ~ 2.2 lb • 1 second (s) time • MKS System of units and measure**B**• SI (Systeme International) Units • Base units: 1 meter (m) length • 1 kilogram (kg) mass • 1 second (s) time • MKS System of units and measure Sometimes easier to derive other units from these: km, g, ms, µs, … km = 103 m kilo g = 10-3 kg kilo ms = 10-3 s milli µs = 10-6 s micro**$Billion error**B UNITS ARE IMPORTANT!!! Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch: 11 Dec. 1998 Orbit insertion: 23 Sep. 1999 Followed by: Loss of Communication WHY? Failed to convert from English units (inches, feet, pounds) to Metric units (MKS)**B**Light takes time to travel: 3 x 108m/sec = 3 x 105 km/sec = 300,000 km/sec = 0.3 m/ns (1 ns = 10-9s) Light Year = 9 trillion km = 6 trillion miles Light Hour Light Minutes are unit of Distance: How far Light Travels in that interval of time 1 light second = 3 x 105 km 1 light ns = 30 cm ≈ 1 foot**B**How long does it take the sun’s light to reach the Earth? Distanced = 1AU = 1.5x1011m Speed of lightv = 3x108 m/s Time**NASA/JPL/Cornell**B Driving the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) • How long does it take to communicate with the rovers?**Interactive Quiz**B How long does it take for radio waves (light) to reach Mars? • Less than 1 second • 1 minute • 10 minutes • 1 hour**Interactive Quiz**B How long does it take for radio waves (light) to reach Mars? • Less than 1 second • 1 minute • 10 minutes • 1 hour Earth-Mars distance: between 55 and 400 million km. tmin = dmin/v = 5.5×107 km / (3×105 km/s ) =1.8×102s= 3 minutes tmax = dmax/v = 4.0×108 km / (3×105 km/s ) =1.3×103s= 22 minutes**G**Powers of Ten“Cosmic Voyage”The Movie**G**How to deal with very large & small numbers • Develop a useful arithmetic • Exponential notation; convert between units • Visualize using a sequence of images (movie) • Use different sequences • Visualize by way of a scale model • Try different models**A Scaled Model of the Solar System**10 Billion x Smaller Sun’s diameter: 14 x 1010 cm Reduce by 1010: 14 cm Earth diameter: 13000 km 0.13 cm Jupiter’s diameter: 150,000 km 1.5 cm Earth’s distance from Sun: 1 “Astronomical Unit” = 1 “AU” = 1.5 x 108 km 1010 Scaled Down “Sun” 14cm 1 AU ?? cm 1.5 cm 15 cm 150 cm 1500 cm Ans: 1500 cm = 15 meters**G**How large is the Solar System? • Let’s view it to scale • Say the Sun is the size of a large grapefruit, 14 cm (6 inches) - then:**Planet Dist (AU) Scaled Dist (m) Where?**Mercury 0.4 6 6 rows back Venus 0.7 10 10 rows Earth 1.0 15 15 rows Mars 1.5 22 22 rows Jupiter 5 75 3/4 football field away Saturn 10 150 1.5 football field away Uranus 20 300 Sproul Plaza Neptune 30 450 Bancroft Ave Pluto 50 750 Durant Ave Oort Cloud 50,000 5 x 105 Oakland**G**You Are Here: Earth’s Orbit Saturn o Jupiter o Uranus o . . 100 m Neptune o**G**How Far is the Nearest Star? Alpha Centauri d = 4 light years = 4 x1016 m Scales to: 4 x 106 m (~ 3000 mi) Grapefruit-sized Sun in Berkeley Nearest Grapefruit: In Washington D.C. “Sun” in S.F. “Alpha Centauri” In Washington D.C.**G**A Universe in motion • Contrary to our perception, we are not “sitting still.” • We are moving with the Earth. • and not just in one direction The Earth rotates around it’s axis once every day!**G**The Earth orbits around the Sun once every year! The Earth’s axis is tilted by 23.5º!**B**Looking back in time • Light, although fast, travels at a finite speed. • It takes: • 8 minutes to reach us from the Sun • 8 years to reach us from Sirius (8 light-years away) • 1,500 years to reach us from the Orion Nebula • The farther out we look into the Universe, the farther back in time we see!**B**What is the origin of the Universe? (1) The two simplest atoms (H and He) were created during the Big Bang. • (2) More complex atoms were created in stars. • (3) When the star dies, chemical elements are expelled into space…. to form new stars and planets! Most of the atoms in our bodies were created in the core of a star!**B**Balloon experiment**B**The Milky Way moves with the expansion of the Universe! • Mostly all galaxies appear to be moving away from us. • The farther away they are, the faster they are moving. • Just like raisins in a raisin cake; they all move apart from each other as the dough (space itself) expands.

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