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Earth Shakes, Rattles, and Rolls

Earth Shakes, Rattles, and Rolls

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Earth Shakes, Rattles, and Rolls

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  1. Earth Shakes, Rattles, and Rolls Plate Tectonics Volcanoes Earthquakes

  2. What is the relationship between the earth’s plates, volcanoes, and earthquakes?

  3. Plates http://www.extremescience.com/PlateTectonicsmap.htm

  4. Earthquakes

  5. Volcanoes http://hsv.com/scitech/earthsci/quake.htm

  6. Let’s look at those maps again.

  7. Plates Volcanoes Earthquakes

  8. Earthquakes and Volcanoes are found where plates meet.

  9. Evidence Wegener used to support theory of continental drift: • Continents fit like a puzzle • Fossil evidence • Rocks were similar in Africa and South America • Evidence Antarctica once had a tropical climate

  10. How did geologists explain how the earth’s plates moved? Continental Drift Mid-Atlantic Ridge allows mantle to seep to surface through cracks and pushes plates of the earth apart.

  11. To see how geologists believe the plates moved go to the site below. Notice the Atlantic Ocean seafloor spreading. Seafloor spreading animation

  12. Layers of the Earth • Crust • Mantle • Outer core • Inner core

  13. Types of Mountains • Folded • Fault-block • Volcanic • Unwarped

  14. FOLDED MOUNTAINS http://www.cssd11.k12.co.us/dohnts/images/earth/fldmtn.jpg

  15. FOLDED MOUNTAINS • Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, and the Swiss Alps in Switzerland • form when two plates collide head on, and their edges crumble • consist mainly of sedimentary rocks, like limestone and shale

  16. FAULT-BLOCK MOUNTAINS

  17. FAULT-BLOCK MOUNTAINS • Consist of huge blocks of the earth's crust that have been tilted or pushed up along a fracture line called a fault • Sierra in California, Arizona is an example. • Created when a plate hits a fault and tips upside down, creating erosion and debris, which is at the base of the mountain.

  18. VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN NAMIBIA IN AFRICA

  19. Volcanic mountains • Formed when molten rock, or magma deep within the earth, erupts, and piles upon the surface • Made of basalt and rhyolite. • Takes place where two of the earth's tectonic plates collide.

  20. UNWARPED MOUNTAINS • Black Hills in South Dakota • form when tectonic forces lift the earth's crust into a broad bulge or dome raising it above its surroundings • Erosion causes peaks and valleys to form.

  21. Convection currents in action! At left, two animal cookies represent two of the Earth's tectonic plates. At right, the two plates have moved apart, much like what happens at a divergent margin. The chocolate pudding represents the Earth's mantle. The heat source beneath the pot created convection cells in the chocolate pudding. Think of the cookie on the left as South America, and the cookie on the right as Africa. Over time they have moved apart. You'll see this again. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://visearth.ucsd.edu:16080/VisE_teach/Kimball/untitled18.jpg&imgrefurl=http://visearth.ucsd.edu:16080/VisE_teach/Kimball/Kimball2.html&h=200&w=308&sz=35&tbnid=sEa1xg46QVMJ:&tbnh=72&tbnw=110&start=9&prev=/images%3Fq%3DCONVECTION%2BCURRENTS%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

  22. Convection currents in the Earth's mantle are what drive plate motions. Convection currents are driven by the simple fact that hot things (such as gases and liquids) rise while cool things fall.

  23. Convection currents in the magma move the earth’s crust.

  24. epicenter The point on the surface of Earth that is right above the focus of an earthquake http://www.harcourtschool.com/glossary/science/define/gr4/epicenter4c.html

  25. http://uc.wisc.edu/news/features/quake/pwaves.html

  26. Go to this site to see an animation of the path of p waves and s waves http://www.pbs.org/wnet/savageearth/animations/earthquakes/

  27. Earthquakes How do we measure the intensity of an earthquake?

  28. Seismographmeasures Magnitude or the strength of an earthquake

  29. Seismograph records energy waves of the earth

  30. Mercalli Scale I.People do not feel anything . • V. • People feel movement. • Doors open • Pictures fall off wall. • VII. • Some buildings lose bricks. • Difficulty driving. IX. Considerable damage to homes. Cracks in earth. • XII. • Almost everything is destroyed. • The ground moves in waves or ripples.

  31. Richter Scale Earthquake Magnitudes Effects Less than 3.5Generally not felt 3.5-5.4Rarely causes damage. Under 6.0 Slight damage to well-designed buildings. 6.1-6.9 Destructive to about 100 kilometers across 7.0-7.9 Major earthquake. Serious damage over larger areas. 8 or greater Great earthquake.

  32. Each number is 10X stronger than the previous number. How much stronger is the 3 than the 1? 100 Times How much stronger is the 8 than the 1? 10,000,000 Write the number in scientific notation. 106

  33. Why is the Richter Scale more accurate than the Mercalli Scale? • The Richter Scale is objective and based on mathematical measurements. • The Mercalli scale is subjective and based on people’s perception and experience. • On Mercalli scale if the area is unihabited there is no way to measure the magnitude of the earthquake.

  34. Richter Magnitude Number of Earthquakes per year 1.0 to 3.9 900,000 + 4.0-4.9 6200 5.0-5.9 800 6.0-6.9 226 7.0-7.9 18 8.0-8.9 Less than 2

  35. primary source language arts connection Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco One Boy’s Experience – Eyewitness Account http://www.olympus.net/personal/gofamily/quake/famous/1906.html Jack London’s Eyewitness Account of San Franciso Earthquake http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/London/Writings/Journalism/sfearthquake.html Click on url to get complete texts

  36. San Francisco Earthquake 1906

  37. Alaska Earthquake 1964

  38. Earthquakes in the ocean cause Tsunamis

  39. Tsunamis 30’ Wall of Water Destruction

  40. Types of Volcanos • Composite • Cinder Cone • Shield

  41. Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Fujiyama, and Mount St. Helens • tens of miles across and ten thousand or more feet in height. • have small craters in their summits http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/volcanoes/typesb.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vtypesvolcan1.html&h=236&w=265&sz=14&tbnid=qZF0vXnHnOkJ:&tbnh=96&tbnw=107&start=19&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcomposite%2Bvolcano%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

  42. consist almost entirely of loose, grainy cinders and almost no lava • small volcanoes • steep sides and usually have a small crater on top http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/volcanoes/typesb.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vtypesvolcan1.html&h=236&w=265&sz=14&tbnid=qZF0vXnHnOkJ:&tbnh=96&tbnw=107&start=19&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcomposite%2Bvolcano%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

  43. hundreds of miles across and many tens of thousands of feet high. • Mauna Loa • consist almost entirely of frozen lavas • large craters at their summits. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/volcanoes/typesb.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vtypesvolcan1.html&h=236&w=265&sz=14&tbnid=qZF0vXnHnOkJ:&tbnh=96&tbnw=107&start=19&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcomposite%2Bvolcano%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

  44. largest single mountain in the world • 30,000 +feet above the ocean floor • 100 miles across at its base.

  45. Image Resources http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/labelvolcano.shtml For additional diagrams of volcanoes click below: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/volcanoes/typesb.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vtypesvolcan1.html&h=236&w=265&sz=14&tbnid=qZF0vXnHnOkJ:&tbnh=96&tbnw=107&start=19&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcomposite%2Bvolcano%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN