Creating an Effective and Safe Learning Environment • Revisiting instructional principles • Rules, routines and discipline • Feeling safe
Revisiting Instructional Principles • Appropriate and interesting activities • Sequencing of activities/ Short transition between activities • Organisation of equipment and groups • Use of voice and whistle • Demonstration and explanation of activities • Useful feedback – positive reinforcement and encouragement • Enthusiasm / confidence • Positioning / movement around the group
Appropriate and Interesting Activities • Level – age, skill, developmental • Outcome • Environment • Group number • Variety
Sequencing of activities • Planning • Short transition between activities • Progressive • Flow
Organisation of Equipment and Groups • Planning • Pre check equipment • Safety • All there • Positioning of equipment • Safety • Keep eyes on group
Organisation of Equipment and Groups cont. • Group formation strategies • # off • Cuddles • Football teams etc • Use previous activity to choose even teams • Ability – buddy • Never, never, never let captains choose teams
Organisation of equipment and groups cont. • Safety • Plan for a safe working environment • Distance between groups • Supervision • No interference • Direction of play • Dangerous activities • Throwing, batting, archery
Use of voice and whistle • Whistle • Safety • Stop not start • Loud honk • Voice • Vary • Protect
Demonstration of activities • A picture paints a thousand words • Correct technique – YOU practice • Use student or “dry run” • Check with student first • Ensure all can see • Support with TP
Explanations of Activities • Wait for attention • Clear and concise • Limit to 5 points • Concentrate on most important • Add others later
Feedback – Positive reinforcement or encouragement? • Positive reinforcement – specific teachable moment • Encouragement – general comment to improve self esteem and effort
Positive reinforcement • Focuses on the learning outcome • Set a task and tell students you are coming to look at one thing • Must be accurate and consistent • Formative – enhances learning
Positive Reinforcement cont. • If advice is given, stay with the student • Get students to provide feedback for each other • Criteria sheets
Encouragement • Does little to reinforce learning • Develops enthusiasm and self esteem • What we do well • Keeps our presence known • Keeps students on track
Negative Feedback • Giving attention on what is not to be done = confusion • No put downs or sarcasm - negative effect for most
Enthusiasm and Confidence • Grows with experience • Planning helps • Know yourself and your style • Teach on the stage • Students are perceptive • Low on enthusiasm – Why?
Positioning and Movement Around the Group • You can see all, and all can see you • Varies • Whole group instructions • Small group activity • Whole group game • Supervising non- participants • MOVE!
Feeling Safe • Learning requires taking risks • A learning environment needs to be safe to ensure effective and optimal learning occurs • Physical • Emotional • Social
Emotional Safety • Self efficacy • Environment free of putdowns • Based on mutual respect and trust
Social Safety • Inclusion not exclusion • Don’t single out or exhibit students • Opportunity to mix social groups • Look out for the isolate • Strategies for inclusion?
Rules, Routines and Discipline • Often go hand in hand • For safety and efficiency • Need to reflect PE department, school, State and society
Rules • Often called policies • List all the areas where rules are needed in a PE class situation
Rules cont. • Changing • Participation • Equipment use • Access to store rooms • Excursions • Treating others with respect • Selection in sports teams • Games
Routines • Procedures to ensure the safe and efficient running of the class • List all the areas where routines are needed to ensure the smooth running of PE class.
Routines cont. • Students lining up • Entering the gym • Changing / supervision? • Marking the roll • Carrying equipment
Routines cont. • Moving around the school • Going on excursions • Distribution of equipment • Drink breaks / supervision? • Student helpers - jobs
Disciplining Students • Know what is, and isn’t acceptable • To you • To the school • To the school community • Consistent • Flexible • Proactive not reactive • Relevant consequence
Discipline Plan • Progressions • Consequences • Rewards
Discipline Plan cont. • Write your own discipline plan • Compare it to the discipline plan in your school during Schools Experience • If possible, implement your discipline plan, reflect and review
“Today is the first day of the rest of your life” (Kahal Gibran)So better make it a good one!
References • Capel, S. Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience. (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. • Harrison,J., Blakemore, C. and Buck, M. (2001). Instructional Strategies for Secondary School Physical Education. (5th ed.) NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Reading Chapter 27 Considerations in management and class control in PE settings Tinning, R., McGuaig, L., and Hunter, Ll. Teaching Health and Physical Education in Australian Schools. NSW, Australia: Pearson Education Australia, 2006.