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Chapter 3 Plant growth & Development PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 3 Plant growth & Development

Chapter 3 Plant growth & Development

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Chapter 3 Plant growth & Development

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  1. Chapter 3 Plant growth & Development

  2. Growth Factors Chemical Energy • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Net Photosynthesis • Temperature • Zone of tolerance • Optimum temperature • Nutrients & water

  3. Growth Substances • Auxins- • 1st group of plant hormones to be discovered, mid 1930’s • Adventitious root initiation • Weed control (2-4D) • Inhibition of stem sprouting • Tissue culture

  4. Gibberellins- • Increasing fruit size of seedless grapes • Stimulating seed germination * seedling growth • Promoting male flowers in cucumbers • Overcoming the cold requirement for some plants

  5. Cytokinins- • No important agriculture use at this time. • DNA & RNA

  6. Ethylene • Fruit ripening • Flower initiation • Changing sex expression (female flowers in cucumbers & pumpkins) • Degreening oranges, lemons grapefruit • Harvest aids

  7. Inhibitors • Abscisic Acid • Synthetic • Used to regulate plant growth

  8. Growth inputs & quality • Timing • Amounts

  9. Patterns of plant growth & development • Vegetative Phase • Reproductive Phase

  10. Temperature & Vernalization • Some plants need lower temperatures for flower induction • Temperature ranges are 32-500 F • Examples are cereal grains (wheat, barley, rye) • Some can be induced to flower by colder temps (spinach, peas, lettuce) • Must reach a maturity before vernalization can begin • Hormone induced (gibberellins) • Look at table 3.1

  11. Light & Photoperiod • Some plants needs a certain number of hours of day length to flower • Short day plants (i.e. poinsettias, strawberries, mums) need long nights uninterrupted to flower • Long Day plants (i.e. spinach sugar beets) need short nights • Day neutral (i.e. tomatoes)

  12. Floral stimulus is transmitted form leaves to meristem • Vegetative to flowering • Different photoperiods needed to induce • Once apex has changed to flower tissue irreversible • Flower initiation to anthesis varies.

  13. Flowering Response to Photoperiod • length of day • Long Day Plants greater than13 hours • Short Day Plants less than12 hours • Day Neutral Plants = no response • Look at table 3.2 & 3.3