Revolts Against the Metternich System Through the use of force, the Quadruple Alliance successfully suppressed most revolts during the first third of the 19th century but the Revolutions of 1848 finally collapsed Metternich’s international system.
Revolutions of 1820-1821 • Spain: Spanish liberals, supported by Spanish troops, revolted against their reactionary king, Ferdinand VII, and compelled him to approve a limited monarchy under a liberal constitution. • The revolt collapsed before an invading French army under Quadruple Alliance orders and the king was restored to power • Italy: Led by the Carbonari, a secret liberal society, the Italian people revolted in the Two Sicilies (1820) and in Piedmont (1821) • They sought to replace reactionary rule with a liberal constitutional government • Austrian armies, acting for the Quadruple Alliance, invaded and suppressed the revolution • Greece: Revolt against the Ottomans broke out in 1821. Metternich and his fellow conservatives refused to support the Greek nationalists, while England, France, and Russia did. The Greeks gain their independence in 1830.
Latin American Revolutions 1810-1823 • With Spain involved in the Napoleonic Wars, the Spanish colonies of Latin America declared independence and adopted democratic constitutions and established republican governments • In 1823 the Quadruple Alliance came to the decision to reconquer Latin America for Spain • Britain and the U.S. sharply opposed reconquest • Both had developed profitable trade relations with independent Latin America and did not wish for a return to Spanish mercantilist policies. • The European Powers abandoned their plans of reconquest once Britain sided with Latin American Independence.
Revolutions of 1830-1832 • France: In 1824 Charles X succeeded his brother , Louis XVIII, and whereas Louis had followed a middle of the road policy, Charles rejected compromise and attempted to restore the Old Regime conditions. • In 1830 the French revolted under liberal leadership and drove out Charles X • Enthroned Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, as a limited monarch • Enacted a liberal constitution • Reduce property qualification for voting to enfranchise more members of the middle class • French success in 1830 ignited other European revolutions
Revolutions of 1830-1832 Continued • Belgium: Rebelling against Holland, Belgian nationalists received support from France under Louis Philippe and from Britain. • In 1839 Belgium secured independence • Italy: In a series of uprisings, Italians liberals again revolted but were suppressed by Austrian troops again • Poland: Polish nationalist rebelled against Russian rule but it was suppress by the Czar’s army.
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848 brought about the downfall of Metternich and the Concert of Europe. France: Republicans force Louis Philippe to abandon the crown and they establish the Second French Republic with Louis Napoleon elected as the president Austrian Empire: Nationalist revolts occur throughout the empire forcing Metternich to flee the country but with the help of Russian forces, the Hapsburgs regained control. Serfdom is abolished. Italy and Germany: Nationalist and Republican revolts occur with limited results. Sardinia-Piedmont and Prussia adopt constitutions but no nationalist gains.