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“The Age of Metternich”

“The Age of Metternich”

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“The Age of Metternich”

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  1. “The Age of Metternich” 1815-1848

  2. Congress of Vienna “Concert of Europe” Competing Ideologies (Ism’s) Reforms and Revolution (1820’s and 30’s) Topics of Interest

  3. The Congress of Vienna

  4. Europe in 1812

  5. The Congress of Vienna(September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)

  6. Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna

  7. Key Players at Vienna Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) The “Host”Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

  8. Main Objectives • Tsar Alexander I (r. 1801-1825) • Russia Arrived as a great Power • Wanted to extend Russian Frontiers • Poland of importance • Most powerful at the Congress

  9. Main Objectives • Lord Castlereagh (British Foreign Minister 1812-1822) • Advocate of “Balance of Power” • Needed France to become a non-aggressor • Looking for International Security

  10. Main Objectives • Frederick William III (r. 1797-1840) • King of Prussia with Napoleonic troops occupying most of German States. • Happy to exist at all. • Wanted a buffer against a strong France. • Wanted to annex Saxony (rich industry)

  11. Main Objectives • Talleyrand (representing France) • Supreme Diplomat • Served under the Revolution, Napoleon, and Louis XVIII • Needed to keep France on the Map • With skill was able to get France a very Lenient settlement

  12. Main Objectives • Prince Klemens Von Metternich (Austrian Foreign Minister from 1809-1848) • Grew up in Rhineland • From Landed Aristocracy • Spoke 5 languages • French troops in 1792 forced him to flee his homeland (POV ?) • Became the mouthpiece for Monarchial conservatism of the 19th century.

  13. Key Principles Established at Vienna • Balance of Power • Legitimacy • Compensation • Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. • France would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.

  14. Changes Made at Vienna (1) • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon. • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). Protectorate • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories. • “Sentinel on the Rhine” • A Germanic Confederation of 30+ states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. • Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy. • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule.

  15. The Germanic Confederation, 1815

  16. Changes Made at Vienna (2) • Norway and Sweden were joined. • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. • Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom. • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. • Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa. • The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies. • The slave trade was condemned (at British urging).

  17. Europe After the Congress of Vienna

  18. Leaders Present???? Review of C.O.V. • Balance of Power / Legitimacy / Compensation: • French Empire Dismantled • Generous Borders given to France • Prussia wants Saxony / Austria won’t allow it ---The deal is they get Ruhr Valley on the Rhine instead (“Sentinel on the Rhine”) • Austria gave up Austrian Netherlands = becomes the K. of Netherlands • HRE not restored > They created the German Confederation • Wanted to restore legitimate monarch and church in France (Not hard to do) • Developed the “Concert of Europe”

  19. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability. 1999 AP Exam FRQ option

  20. What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna?

  21. An Evaluation of the Congress of Vienna • The Congress of Vienna was criticized for ignoring the liberal & nationalist aspirations of so many peoples. • The leading statesmen at Vienna underestimated the new nationalism and liberalism generated by the French Revolution. • Not until the unification of Germany in 1870-71 was the balance of power upset. • Not until World War I did Europe have another general war.

  22. Concert of Europe = Alliance of Powers who would be vigilant against Radical / Revolutionary ideas. Holy Alliance (Sept. 1815) ---Repression with a Christian touch. No Consultation of the Czechs, Belgians, Hungarians, Poles, Serbs, Greeks Concert of Europe vs. Monroe Doctrine By-Products of Congress of Vienna

  23. September 1815 Austria, Russia , Prussia Proposed by Tsar Alexander I Pledged to Observe Christian Principles in domestic and International Affairs Quadruple Alliance had more significance ---Out of it came the “Concert of Europe” Holy Alliance and the Quadruple Alliance

  24. Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle (1818): France would be freed from Occupation (“good behavior”) Quadruple Alliance becomes Quintuple Alliance Congress of Troppau (1820): Revolutionaries in Spain and Naples forced the Kings of those nations to accept Const. Limits Metternich called for action-Fr. and Brit. balked Congress of Verona (1822): Latin American Revolts—Brit. Objected to intervention as they wanted a fragmented and broken Spanish empire in the New World Monroe Doctrine (USA) warned against any Power in New World “Concert of Europe”

  25. Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19c

  26. Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle (1818): France would be freed from Occupation (“good behavior”) Quadruple Alliance becomes Quintuple Alliance Congress of Troppau (1820): Revolutionaries in Spain and Naples forced the Kings of those nations to accept Const. Limits Metternich called for action-Fr. and Brit. balked Congress of Verona (1822): Latin American Revolts—Brit. Objected to intervention as they wanted a fragmented and broken Spanish empire in the New World Monroe Doctrine (USA) warned against any Power in New World “Concert of Europe”

  27. 19c Latin American Independence Movements

  28. Congress of Verona

  29. Old Order Metternich Aristocrats Monarchs Church New Order Liberals Nationalists Socialists Romantics Radicals Conflict Emerges VS. Forces of Order against the Forces of Change

  30. 19c Conservatism • Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism & became a popular alternative for those who were frightened by the violence unleashed by the French Revolution. • Early conservatism was allied to the restored monarchical governments of Austria, Prussia, France, and England. • Support for conservatism: • Came from the traditional ruling class. • Also supported by the peasants. • Supported by Romantic writers, conservatives believed in order, society and the state, faith, and tradition.

  31. Characteristics of Conservatism • Conservatives viewed history as a continuum. • The basis of society is organic, not contractual. • Stability & longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society. • The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history. • They rejected the “social contract” theory. • Conservatives believed that self-interests do not lead to social harmony, but to social conflict. • Denounced individualism and natural rights. • To conservatives, society was hierarchical.

  32. 19th century Liberalism

  33. The word was first used when the term was adopted by the Spanish political party, the Liberales, in 1812. The roots of liberalism came from two very different traditions of English & French political thought. England John Locke Adam Smith France Jean Jacques Rousseau Francois Guizot Origins of 19c Liberalism

  34. John Locke • Contract theory of government. • Regarded the state as ahuman construction, established by an originalcontract. • Limited, constitutional government. • Civil society of free men, equal under the rule of law, bound together by no common purpose but sharing respect for each other’s rights. • Doctrine of natural rights. • Links private property with individual liberty.

  35. Adam Smith • His Wealth of Nations adds an economic dimension. • He merged Locke’s ideas of civil society with economic theory. • Free trade economics. • Saw the “invisible hand” where a benevolent God administered a universe in which human happiness was maximized.

  36. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) • Wrote works on logic and metaphysics, history and literature, economics and political theory. • Learned Greek at 3; Latin a bit later. • By 12 he was a competent logician. • By 16 he was a trained economist. • A utilitarian: • The greatest happiness for the greatest number. • Wrote On Liberty in 1859.

  37. On Liberty (1859) • Government might be antagonistic to the causes of individual freedom. • The sole purpose of government is “self-protection.” • Government may only coerce others in self-defense. • We should maximize human development for a more equal society: • Mill favored a more open administration. • Organized interest groups. • Workers cooperatives • Workers would own the factories and elect the managers. • Tax wealth. • Redistribution system of wealth: • Confiscation of excess profits • Abolish the wage system. • Emancipation of women.

  38. Important legislation: Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829. Reform Act of 1832. Factory Act of 1833. Repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. Classical Liberalism in England

  39. Classical Liberalism in France • Dilemmas faced by French liberals: • How to ‘end’ the French Revolution? • How to reconcile order and liberty in a nation torn apart by civil war? • These problems called for a rethinking of Liberalism.

  40. Jean Jacques Rousseau • His Social Contract andtheory of the “general will” demonstrates an alternative origin of Liberalism. • Men must resolve problemsthrough our capacity tochoose how we ought to live. • Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains. • Humans are essentially free, but the ‘progress’ of civilization has substituted subservience to others for that freedom.

  41. Rousseau & Totalitarianism • The “General Will”  a strong and direct form of democracy. • Only possible in a relatively small state? • Is Rousseau promoting collective tyranny? • Rousseau rejected representative democracy.

  42. Francois Guizot • He ‘deconstructed’ the French Revolution, and distinguished between “Moderate Liberalism” and extremist Jacobinism.

  43. “Moderate” Liberalism • Favored the idea of the sovereignty of the people, but… • Government should rest on the organized consent of at least the most important sections of the community. • An extension of the franchise to include all men of property. • Exclude the working class! • A good constitutional monarchy was the best form of government. • Valued liberty more than equality. • Confidence in man’s powers of self-government and self-control. • Freedom of the press. • Free right of assembly. • Written constitutions.

  44. “Moderate” Liberalism • Economic policies: • Laissez-faire economy. • Free trade. • Lower tariffs. • Against the right of the working class to organize into unions. • The general progress of humanity would emerge from the growth of wealth and from science and inventions. • Established churches & the landed aristocracy were obstacles to the advancement of civilization. • Orderly change by legislative process. • A dislike of wars, conquests, a standing army, and military expenditures. • Hated the idea of revolution!

  45. Challenges to Liberalism • From above  the conservative upper class. • From below  socialism/Marxism. • From organized religions. • From militarism and imperialism. • From economic upheavals: • Irish Potato Famine [1845-1852]. • Great Depressions [1873-1896].

  46. Most combustible Reasserted itself in the Post-Soviet era (Eastern Europe) Origins in 100 yr. War, French Rev., Napoleon Composed of people with a common: Language Customs Culture History These bonds = same government for all Opposed the Congress of Vienna and Legitimacy as basis for political unity 19 Century Nationalism

  47. Germany Wars of Liberation promoted Unification and Nationalism Metternich could not have National Sovereignty in Germany Nationalism as Spawn of Revolution = Must Suppress 1817 Wartburg Castle Demonstration 1819 “Karlsbad Decrees” Italy: Kingdom of Sardinia was the only Italian family (Savoy) Bourbons restored in Naples and Sicily Most Nationalistic sentiment was against the Austrians in the North Conservatives Suppress it to underground org. Ex: Carbonari Pre-Unification Examples of Nationalistic movements