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## Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.

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**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 1**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 2**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 3**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 4**They repeat the same pattern at regular intervals.**• They occur naturally and change regularly over time. • No two adjacent points on a graph have the same value. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 5**They repeat the same pattern at regular intervals.**• They repeat the flat pattern on both the top and bottom of the wave. • They do not continuously vary with time. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 6**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 7**Three main numbering schemes**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 8**The Power budget or Link budget**(Watts,Volts,dB) • Power Formula used for gain or loss • light waves on optical fiber • radio waves in the air CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 9**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 10**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 11**Analyzing signals using an oscilloscope is called**time-domain analysis, because the x-axis or domain of the mathematical function represents time. More than one vertical input can show more than one wave simultaneously. In frequency-domain analysis, the x-axis represents frequency. An electronic device called a spectrum analyzer creates graphs for frequency-domain analysis. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 12**Nearby cables which carry data signals (crosstalk)**• Radio frequency interference (RFI), which is noise from other signals being transmitted nearby • Electromagnetic interference (EMI), which is noise from nearby sources such as motors and neon lights • Laser noise at the transmitter or receiver of an optical signal (Not affected by electrical noise.) CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 13**Noise is added to the data signal.**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 14**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 15**Examples of analog bandwidth values are 3 kHz for telephony,**20 kHz for audible signals, 5 kHz for AM radio stations, and 200 MHz for FM radio stations. • Analog bandwidth refers to frequency range in Hz (cycles per second). • Digital bandwidth measures speed of the transmission in bits per second. Digital bandwidth measures how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 16**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 17**braided conductive**• foil-screened • (good shielding ) CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 18**protect one pair of wires within the cable from noise**generated by electrical signals on another pair of wires • protect the data signal from external sources of noise • eliminate signal loss by keeping the transmitted signal confined to the cable CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 19**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 20**light/no light**• increasing/decreasing light intensity • Low attenuation • No electrical interference CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 21**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 22**Factors that contribute to attenuation in copper media**• long cable lengths • defective connectors • energy leaks through the insulation of the cable CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 23**The resistance of the copper cable converts some of the**electrical energy of the signal to heat. • Signal energy is also lost when it leaks through the insulation of the cable and by • Impedance caused by defective connectors. • Impedance is a measurement of the resistance of the cable to alternating current (AC) and is measured in ohms. • The normal, or characteristic, impedance of a Cat5 cable is 100 ohms. • If a connector is improperly installed on Cat5, it will have a different impedance value than the cable. • This is called an impedance discontinuity or an impedance mismatch. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 24**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 25**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 26**Crosstalk (xtalk) is another form of noise**Fiber has no Crosstalk (Xtalk) • no electrical signals • no generation of electromagnetic waves CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 27**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 28**CAT 5e & 6c**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 29**Equal Level Far End Cross Talk (ELFEXT)**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 30**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 31**short**open CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 32**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 33**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 34**Cable testing standards**• Wire map • Insertion loss • Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) • Power sum near-end crosstalk (PSNEXT) • Equal-level far-end crosstalk (ELFEXT) • Power sum equal-level far-end crosstalk (PSELFEXT) • Return loss • Propagation delay • Cable length • Delay skew CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 35**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 36**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 37**Differentiate between sine waves and square waves.**• Define and calculate exponents and logarithms. • Define and calculate decibels. • Define basic terminology related to time, frequency, and noise. • Differentiate between digital bandwidth and analog bandwidth. • Compare and contrast noise levels on various types of cabling. • Define and describe the affects of attenuation and impedance mismatch. • Define crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, far-end crosstalk, and power sum near-end crosstalk. • Describe how crosstalk and twisted pairs help reduce noise. • Describe the ten copper cable tests defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. • Describe the difference between Category 5 and Category 6 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 38**A pulse is a deliberate, fixed disturbances of predictable**duration used to… • Measure propagation delay (delay skew) to determine the value of the data being transmitted • Find discontinuities (reflections, jitter) • Measure transmission length CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 39**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 40**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 41**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 42**Waves are energy traveling from one place to another, and**are created by disturbances. All waves have similar attributes such as amplitude, period, and frequency. • Sine waves are periodic, continuously varying functions. Analog signals look like sine waves. • Square waves are periodic functions whose values remain constant for a period of time and then change abruptly. Digital signals look like square waves. • Exponents are used to represent very large or very small numbers. The base of a number raised to a positive exponent is equal to the base multiplied by itself exponent times. For example, 103 = 10x10x10 = 1000. • Logarithms are similar to exponents. A logarithm to the base of 10 of a number equals the exponent to which 10 would have to be raised in order to equal the number. For example, log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. • Decibels are measurements of a gain or loss in the power of a signal. Negative values represent losses and positive values represent gains. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 43**Time-domain analysis is the graphing of voltage or current**with respect to time using an oscilloscope. Frequency-domain analysis is the graphing of voltage or power with respect to frequency using a spectrum analyzer. • Undesirable signals in a communications system are called noise. Noise originates from other cables, RFI, and EMI. White noise affects all frequencies, while narrowband interference affects only a certain subset of frequencies. • Analog bandwidth is the frequency range that is associated with certain analog transmission, such as television or FM radio. • Digital bandwidth measures how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Its units are in various multiples of bits per second. • Most LAN problems occur at the physical layer. The only way to prevent or troubleshoot many of these problems is through the use of cable testers. • Proper cable installation according to standards increases LAN reliability and performance. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 44**Copper media is available in shielded and unshielded forms.**Unshielded cable is more susceptible to noise. • Signal degradation is due to various factors such as noise, attenuation, impedance mismatch, and several types of crosstalk. These factors cause decreased network performance. • The TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies ten tests that a copper cable must pass if it will be used for modern, high-speed Ethernet LANs. • Optical fiber must also be tested according to networking standards. • Category 6 cable must meet more rigorous frequency testing standards than Category 5 cable. CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 45**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence**College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 46**END**CCNA Semester 1 Version 3 Comp11 Mod4 – St. Lawrence College – Cornwall Campus – Clark slide 47