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Food Selection

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  1. Food Selection Objective 8

  2. Food and the Consumer Chapter 42

  3. Efficient Shopping • Making a shopping list makes it a lot easier to shop • It also ensures you get everything you need • It helps a consumer avoid impulse buying • Include staple items (food you use everyday) • Organize logically (food groups, aisles, etc.)

  4. Where to Shop • Several different types of stores that provide a consumer with the products they need • Supermarkets: • Large stores that sell many types of food and household products • Allow “one-stop” shopping • Many have bakeries, deli’s, pharmacies, banks, florists, and video departments

  5. Cont. • Offer a wider selection of food and non-food products • Warehouses are similar to supermarkets except they sell in larger quantities and usually for less • Discount supermarkets have discounted prices, stock fewer brands, and offer fewer services than regular supermarkets • May have to bring their own bags

  6. Convenience Stores • Small stores with a limited selection • Usually open 24 hours • Great for last minute items • Higher prices than a supermarket

  7. Specialty Store • Stores that sell only one type of product • Higher prices than a supermarket • Higher quality foods • Examples: Fish market, butcher shop, natural food stores, farmer’s market, roadside stands, and delicatessens

  8. Judging Quality • Shopping requires good decision-making skills • Need to know how to spot high and low quality items • Look for unusual spots, colors, softness, bruises, breaks in the skin, and open packages – stay away from any of these!!

  9. Cont. • Warning signs of products not to buy (cont.): • Bulging or dented cans – may have bacteria • Rusty cans • Soft or soggy frozen food packages • Frozen food covered in ice

  10. Product Dating • Dates on packages also help judge quality • Pull Date: “sell date” last day a product may be sold • Found on items that spoil quickly (cheese) • Still good for some time after this date • Expiration Date: “use by” last day a product is considered fresh • A food may be safe to eat after this date; but it may lack in taste and nutrients

  11. Judging Value • Unit pricing helps consumers make decisions • Unit pricing is the price per ounce, pound, or other unit of measure • Makes it easy to compare products • Displayed on labels on shelves in front of product

  12. Reading Labels • Nutrition labels give information about the contents and nutritional value of a product • 90% of food products are required by law to have a food label • Basic information: • Name of product • Amount of food (weight or volume) • Name and address of manufacturer • List of ingredients

  13. Nutrition Labels • Titled “nutrition facts” • Each label has the serving information, calorie information, nutrient information, percent daily value (tells the recommended amount for an “average” person, daily value (based on 2,000 calorie diet), and conversion guide

  14. Food Additives • Additives are substances that are added to food before it is sold • All additives must be approved by the FDA • Example: food colors, sweeteners, and flavorings • Preservatives help food stay fresh longer • Organically grown foods are produced without the use of manufactured chemicals • Also must be free of pesticides and fertilizers

  15. Brand Names and Generic Products • National brands: products sold across the country • Store brands: product produced especially for the store or chain • Generic Products: goods that have a plain package and are less expensive than national or store brands

  16. Cont. • May be a difference in quality and taste of the foods

  17. Safety and Sanitation Chapter 44

  18. Safety and Sanitation • When working in a kitchen, safety and sanitation are very important • Sanitation is keeping harmful bacteria from growing in food • To be sanitary, it is important to keep yourself clean and keep all appliances and utensils clean

  19. Kitchen Safety • Knowledge is the most important kitchen resource • Kitchen accidents occur when people are careless and not paying attention • Other sources of danger includes: sharp objects, ovens and ranges, grease, metal pots and pans

  20. Cont. • It is also important to keep electrical appliances away from water • Can cause shock • Gas appliances can leak and become very dangerous because they can explode and/or cause fires

  21. Cont. • All cleaning products need to be stored away from food • Also keep them out of reach of young children

  22. Safety Precautions • To prevent cuts: • Always hold knife by its handle and never catch a falling knife • Use a cutting board • Wash knives separate from other dishes • Don’t put non-food objects in blenders • Be careful of lids

  23. Cont. • To prevent burns: • Use plastic handle spoons to stir, not metal objects • Use pot holders • Keep pan handles turned inward so they don’t get knocked over • Lift pan lids away from you to prevent steam burns

  24. Cont. • To prevent fires: • Keep all flammable objects (wash clothes, paper towels, etc) away from the range • Wear tight fitting clothes • Keep long hair tied back • Clean grease from all surfaces • Smother grease fires by turning off the heat source and covering with a pan. NEVER use water! • Keep a fire extinguisher handy

  25. Cont. • To prevent electrical shock: • Plug only one appliance in at a time • Unplug appliances when they are not in use • Don’t use appliances with frayed cords • Don’t touch electrical appliances with wet hands • Don’t stick metal objects into the toaster

  26. Cont. • To prevent other kinds of injuries: • Wipe up spills immediately • Never leave anything on the floor • Stand on a ladder or stool, not on a chair or box • Turn all appliances “off” when not in use • Never turn on a gas range if you smell gas • Store chemicals out of reach of children

  27. Kitchen Sanitation • Microscopic bacteria can grow even in clean kitchens • They multiply rapidly at room temperatures causing food borne illnesses • Examples include salmonella, botulism, and E. coli

  28. Salmonella • A bacteria that grows in poultry and eggs • Can be spread from food to food through improper cleaning or from eating raw and under cooked eggs and poultry • Symptoms include: nausea, diarrhea, mild to severe cramps, and fever

  29. Botulism • A fatal bacteria that affects the nervous system • It comes from improperly home canned foods • Symptoms include: difficulty breathing, trouble swallowing, and double vision • Never eat or taste food from bulging, leaking, cracked, chipped, or unsealed jars and cans

  30. Sanitation Practices • Use hot, soapy water to wash kitchen tools and utensils • Wash your hands before working and after using the restroom • Wash fruits and vegetables before you eat them • Wash the tops of cans before you open them

  31. Cont. • Use a clean plate to handle cooked food. Never use the same plate that held raw food • Use clean dishcloths, sponges, and towels to avoid spreading germs • Keep pets out of the preparation areas • Use a separate towel to dry hands and to dry dishes • Use a tissue when you cough or sneeze and then wash your hands

  32. Cont. • Keep your hair out of the foods • Don’t smoke around food • Use a separate spoon to taste • Avoid touching the eating surfaces of plates, flatware, and glasses when setting the table

  33. Proper Temperatures • Foods need to be kept at the proper temperatures • Food should be hotter than 140º and colder than 40º to prevent the development of bacteria and food borne illnesses

  34. Cont. • Heating foods helps to kill bacteria • Cook meats to their correct internal temperature (pork and chicken need to be cooked thoroughly) • Cool foods in the refrigerator • Freezing foods helps to kill bacteria • Check expiration dates on products often and don’t eat or taste foods and look or smell questionable

  35. Measuring Basics Chapter 46

  36. Units of Measure • In order to follow a recipe, a person must be able to measure ingredients • Two types of measures: • Customary System: standard system of measurement in U.S. • Metric System: standard system of measurement in most of the world

  37. Customary: Teaspoon=tsp. Tablespoon = Tbsp. Fluid ounce = fl.oz. Cup = c. Pint = pt. Quart = qt. Gallon = gal. Ounce = oz. Pound = lb. or # Metric: Milliliter = mL Liter = L Gram = g Kilogram = kg Cont.

  38. Measurement Equivalents • Look at chart 46.1 page 454 • Very Important!!!

  39. Measuring Techniques • Liquid Measures use glass or plastic measuring cups • To measure liquids: • Place measuring cup on a flat surface at eye-level • Pour liquid and check the line until the liquid is at desired level

  40. Cont. • Dry measures: • For flour, sugar, baking powder, and spices • Use dry measuring cups or spoons • When measuring flour: • Spoon gently; do not shake or tap; overfill and level off • When measuring brown sugar: • Spoon into a measuring cup and pack down firmly; pack down in layers until cup is full

  41. Cont. • Solid fats: • Include butter, margarine, and shortening (Crisco) • Spoon in a cup and pack firmly; level off and scrape out using a spatula • OR • Stick method: cut off the amount you need • OR • Water displacement method: • Example: to measure ¼ cup of shortening and fill a liquid measuring cup ¾ cup full, spoon in shortening until the liquid measures 1 cup; then drain water

  42. Adjusting Measurements • Sometimes you may need to adjust a recipe • Some recipes need to be doubled (multiply x 2) or divided in half (divide / 2) • Easiest to make adjustments before you begin cooking • Make sure to write down the adjustments

  43. Preparation Skills Chapter 47

  44. Cutting Foods • A well stocked kitchen has a variety of cutting tools • Knives, cutting boards, shears, peelers, pizza wheels, food processors, and blenders • Several different ways to cut • Pare-cut away the skin • Chop and mince • Puree-mash until smooth • Slice • Cube and dice • Shred and grate

  45. Safety when cutting • Always keep your knives sharp • Always use a cutting board • Cut away from your body • Wash knives one at a time • Don’t try and catch a falling knife • Always cut foods with finger tips tucked in

  46. Mixing Tools • Mixing tools include bowls, spoons, whisk, electric mixer, rubber scraper, pastry blender, rotary beater • Speed of mixing affects the product because of the amount of air mixed in

  47. Tips for mixing • Choose a bowl that is the right size for the job • Place a wet cloth under the bowl to prevent it from slipping • Use a rubber scraper to remove food from a mixing bowl

  48. Other mixing terms • Stir • Whip • Fold • Blend • Beat • Cream • Cut-in • Toss

  49. Cooking Techniques Chapter 48