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The Necessities of Life

The Necessities of Life

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The Necessities of Life

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  1. The Necessities of Life Book A-Chapter 1-Section 2

  2. Discussion • What needs to humans have? • Do we have the same needs as animals?

  3. Water • The body is mostly made up of water • Cells are 70% water • Most chemical reactions having to do with metabolism require water • Different organisms require different amounts of water

  4. Example of different water intake:humans vs. camels • Humans can only survive for about 3 days without water • Camels don’t drink water during the whole winter! During the hottest part of the summer, they can go for a week without water!

  5. Air • Air is a mixture of gases • Most organisms require oxygen and get it from either air or water • Green plants, algae, and some bacteria need carbon dioxide gas in addition to oxygen • These organisms produce food and oxygen by using photosynthesis-or converting energy in sunlight to energy stored in food

  6. A place to live • All living things need a place to live • Some move around, and some stay in the same place throughout the duration of their life • Example: the Warbler

  7. Food • All living things need food • Food provides organisms with energy • Organisms use nutrients from food to replace cells and build body parts • Not all animals get food in the same way

  8. Producers • Some organisms, such as plants, are called producers • PRODUCERS: make own food by using energy from its surroundings • Plants use energy from the sun to make food from water and carbon dioxide

  9. Consumers • CONSUMERS: organisms that eat other organisms or organic matter

  10. Decomposers • Some consumers are decomposers • DECOMPOSERS are organisms that get their food by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients Earthworms, fungi, termites, bacteria

  11. Brainpop video • http://www.brainpop.com/science/populationsresourcesandenvironment/foodchains/zoom.weml

  12. Nutrients • All organisms eat to get nutrients • Nutrients are made up of molecules • A molecule is a substance when two or more atoms combine • Molecules of different kinds of atoms are compounds • Molecules found in living things are usually made of different combinations of six elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. • These elements combine to form proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, ATP, and nucleic acid

  13. Proteins • PROTEIN: a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body • Animals break down proteins with amino acids

  14. Proteins in Action • Some proteins have visible functions:

  15. Proteins in Action (2) • Other proteins are small and help cells do their jobs • Inside blood, the red protein, hemoglobin, bind to oxygen to deliver and release oxygen throughout the body • Some proteins protect cells • Other proteins, called enzymes start or speed up chemical reactions

  16. Carbohydrates • CARBOHYDRATES: a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • There are two kinds of carbohydrates: simple and complex

  17. Simple Carbohydrates • Made up of one sugar molecule or a few sugar molecules linked together • Table sugar and sugar in fruits are examples

  18. Complex Carbohydrates • When an organism has more sugar than it needs, its extra sugar may be stored as complex carbohydrates • Complex carbohydrates are made of hundreds of sugar molecules linked together

  19. Brainpop video • http://www.brainpop.com/health/personalhealth/carbohydrates/

  20. Lipids • LIPIDS: a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steroids are lipids • Some lipids store energy • Other lipids form cell membranes

  21. Phospholipids • All cells are surrounded by a membrane • Membrane helps protect the cell from the outside environment • PHOSPOLIPIDS:a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes

  22. Fats and Oils • Fats and Oils are lipids that store energy • When an organism has burned through its carbohydrates, it can get energy from these lipids • The structure of fats and oils are almost the same, but at room temperature, most fats are solid, and most oils are liquid • Most of the lipids stored in plants are oils • Most of the lipids stored in animals are fats

  23. ATP • ATP=adenosine triphosphate • ATP-the major energy carrying molecule in the cell • The energy in carbs and lipids must be transferred to ATP which provides fuel for cellular activity

  24. Nucleic Acids • Sometimes called the “blueprints” of life because they have all the information needed for a cell to make proteins • NUCLEIC ACID-a molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides • DNA is a nucleic acid that provides information on how to make a DNA • The order of nucleotides tells the cell the order of the amino acids that are linked together to make that protein