Dam • Placed across a river to block or control the flow of water.
Reservoir • Lake where water is stored from a dam.
Cofferdam • Temporary water tight walls used to keep a construction site dry during the construction of a dam.
Embankment • Blocks the flow of water.
Outlet • Controls the flow of water through or around a dam
Spillway • Allows excess water to bypass the dam when a reservoir becomes to full.
Irrigation Canals • Carry water from a place where water is plentiful to a place where it is needed.
Navigation Canals • Connects two bodies of water.
Lock • Enclosed part of a canal with a gate that allows ships to pass through.
Tunnel • Underground passageways
Pipelines • Used to transport oil, natural gas, water etc…
Air Supported Structure • Air pressure used to support walls.
Space Stations • Structures that allow people to live in space.
Skylab • First space station of the United States.
Mir • First Russian space station
International Space Station • Space station operated by the United States and 15 other nations
Three advantages of building dams • Store water • Provide a supply of water • Control the flow of water • Recreation
Materials that dams are constructed from • Earth • Concrete • Wood
Why are spillways important to dams? • Keeps water from flowing over the top of dam when there is excessive rain.
What is the main reason to build canals? • To connect two bodies of water. Saves on travel time.
What are reasons for building tunnels? • To move people and materials underground. • Faster • Takes up less space above ground.
Three types of tunnels • Earth- Use soil to build dam. • Immersed- Pre-fabricated tunnel • Rock- Blasting and boring machines
Chunnel • Tunnel that connects England and France. One of the longest tunnels in the world.
How do pipelines keep pressure and keep products moving? • Above ground pumping stations
How are sections of pipelines inspected for leaks • X-rays • Ultrasound
Why must the earth be packed tightly around pipelines? • To keep ground from settling and causing pipe to move and burst.
Four elements that make up an air supported structure. • Membrane • Means of supporting membrane • Anchoring membrane • Way in and out.
What is the membrane of an air supported structure made from? • Synthetic material
How do you get in and out of an air supported structure? • Air lock • Revolving Door
Why are traditional doors not used in air supported structures? • Hard to open door. • Air will escape
What is the main advantage of air supported structures? • Can be set up and taken down fast and easily.
How was Skylab launched into space? What year • Saturn V Rocket • 1973
What was the purpose of Skylab? • To study how the human body reacts to space
What happened to Skylab? • Fell to the earth and burned up in the atmosphere
What date did the Russian space station Mir take orbit? • February 20, 1986
How long was Mir in Orbit? What happened to the space station? • 15 Years • Diverted into the atmosphere and burned?
How are materials delivered to the International Space Station. • Space Shuttle
What year did the first crew begin to live on the ISS? How many astronauts live on the ISS at one time? • 2000 • 6
Explain the orbit of ISS • 220 miles above the earth. • Flies at 17, 500 mph • Circles the earth every 90 minutes