DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS INTECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING: ______________________________________ THE CASE OF UGANDA ________________________________________ Date: 03-04 December 2013 Venue: Las Vegas Hotel, USAPresented by: Ethel Kyobe, Member of the Uganda Business and Technical Examinations Board (UBTEB)
Introduction In most developing countries: • The labour market is characterised by high unemployment and under-employment • The low quality and productivity levels affect economic competitiveness • The Public-Private Partnership has become increasingly critical for development
The Uganda situation: • Lack of the right competencies of the workforce limits productivity and thus competitiveness of Ugandan economy • BTVET courses do not sufficiently reflect the requirements of the real world of work (the relevance of certificates and diplomas is questionable). • Access to BTVET is denied for the majority of young people • Unit cost of BTVET is too high Hence: BTVET reforms to introduce Competence-Based Education and Training (CBET)
Policy decision to reform BTVET curriculum The Education Ministry initiated a government- driven reformto establish UVQF as a mechanism to: • define the occupational skills requirements in the world of work / employment (=occupational/competence standards) • assess learners against these ‘industry-led’ standards (=assessment) • award vocational qualifications to learners who prove that they meet the standards (=certification). • In December 2008, the BTVET Act, 2008 was launched in which UVQF is established by law. Critical- active participation of Private Sector
Assessment Standards (4) World of Work Technical/Vocational Education & Training Development/Translation How to distinguish types of “Standards” in TVET GAP G. Education Standards (3) Occupational Standards (1) Training Standards (2) inputs + processes outcomes National Vocational Qualifications Curricula, Syllabi National Occupational Profiles
‘Occupational standards’ (sometimes also called “employment specifications”) usually refer to the occupational duties which a person must be able to perform in employment. Hence ‘occupational standards‘ are closely related with the general structure and contents of occupations in the labour market, i.e. they reflect the qualitative requirements of the working world with regard to occupational competences (skills demand). Starting point: Occupational Profile development[UVQF roles]
Key Terms: • DUTY- general area of responsibility (competence) representing a cluster of related tasks • TASKS- represent the smallest unit of job activities with a meaningful outcome. Tasks result in a product, service, or decision. They represent an assignable unit of work and have a definite beginning and ending point. Tasks can be observed and measured. A task reflects a business value payable by an employer or a customer.
Training Modules Standards • Describe objectives, contents and methods related to the delivery of training as found for example in training regulations, programmes and curricula and/or syllabi. • Thus, training standards focus on the supply of competent manpower in terms of vocational knowledge, skills and abilities (competencies) to be acquired by trainees in the course of their training. • However, since the logic of learning (i.e. the inputs into and processes of learning) is usually different from the logic of occupational performance in work life, there is need to translate the occupational standards into learning programmes.
Key elements of Training Modules • Training modules contain so-called “Learning-working Assignments” (LWAs) and related “Practical Exercises” (PEXs) as key elements. • LWAs are simulated or real job situations/ assignments that are suitable for learning in a training environment (e.g. “small project”). • In a working environment LWAs are real work situations. • PEXs are Practical Exercises” performed during execution of Learning-Working Assignments
Assessment Standards • (also called “assessment specifications” or “outcomes” of training/learning) • Stipulate the requirements to be met for certification of a certain occupational competence. • Assessment / examination standards may also prescribe the mechanisms, modalities and procedures to conduct assessment / examinations.
Characteristics of Assessment • In the CBET system criterion referenced assessments are used where the candidates’ performance is measured against predefined standards. • Features of a good assessment are validity, reliability, objectivity, efficiency, transparency, comprehensiveness, differentiation • It includes both the cognitive and psychomotor domains with the complexity levels remembering, functional understanding and problem solving
II. Develop Modular Training Curricula (based on OP) III. Develop Assessment Items How the UVQF reform works… I. Develop Occupational Profiles (OP) • Assessment & Training Packages (ATP) comprise: • Occupational Profiles • Sample Test Item • Training Module Guides
ATP- Part 1- Occupational Profile: • defines duties and tasks performed and provides additional generic information regarding the occupation. • exclusively developed by job practitioners, guided by trained DACUM Facilitators • Occupational Profiles define WHAT a person is supposed to do in performance terms. • It also contains generic information regarding related knowledge and skills, attitudes/behaviour, tools, materials and equipment required to perform as well as trends/ concerns in the occupation.
ATP- Part 2- Training Modules: • Based on the Occupational Profile • Training Modules are developed by combined panels of Instructors and job practitioners, guided by trained Facilitators. • Training Modules are in the form of a guideline identified and packaged to enable a learner acquire particular set(s) of competencies. • Training Modules are employable and certifiable units (not just time-based) • Modular courses can be independently certified, leading to partial qualifications
ATP- Part 3- Assessment instruments: • Based on the Occupational Profile • Developed by combined panels of Instructors and job practitioners, guided by trained Facilitators. • The test Items are in performance (outcome-oriented) terms • Types of Test instruments are in form of performance (practical) and written (theory) test items • The test items -include performance criteria- check the HOW and/or HOW WELL a person must do the job.
ATP- Summary: • The ATP is a Uganda-specific package (tool) designed to guide employers, assessors and trainers to establish competence- based education and training by linking qualification standards; • The ATP is designed to facilitate the shift from conventional ‘subject-based’ training to competence-based training programmes; • The ATP is designed to facilitate modularised training as well as modular-based assessment for immediate employment, career progression, Life Long Learning and international benchmarking.
Relationship of Qualification Standards OS based on industry requirements Training Modules for trainees to prepare for work/assessment Test items ( based on OS) to assess/certify candidates
Strengths of UVQF and Opportunities Strength of UVQF • Public private partnership built in all development procedures • Introduction and operationalization of CBET in BTVET • Products (OP, TMs, TIBs) reflect requirements of world of work in Uganda Opportunities of UVQF • Recognition of informal and non-formal training • Improvement in mobility of labour force, marketability of skills and productivity of enterprise competiveness
Achievements towards UVQF Establishment by November 2013 The Qualifications Standards department so far has developed; • 77 Occupational Profiles • 94 Training Modules • 96 Assessment instruments/test item banks based on occupational profiles and Training Modules • 93 Assessment and Training Packages (ATPs) compiled up to 3 Qualification Levels
Challenges! 1. Awareness of the BTVET Act provisions 2. Insufficient BTVET funding 3. Willingness of stakeholders to adopt change 4. Orientation and capacity building of instructors to adapt CBET 5. Motivation of Private Sector 6. Linkage of existing stakeholders 7. Benchmarking of National Standards with different global zones