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Twins: Nature’s Clones

Twins: Nature’s Clones

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Twins: Nature’s Clones

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  1. Twins: Nature’s Clones Reading II.

  2. Twins • What’s your first sites? Same appearance Same accent Similar personality Same interest Parents will be confused

  3. Wikipedia - Twins • A twin is one of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy. • Twins can either be monozygotic, meaning that they develop from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic because they develop from two separate eggs that are fertilized by two separate sperm.

  4. Twins: In a medical sight

  5. Twins or NOT Twins (B) (A) (D) (C) (Pictures are provided by 章國政)

  6. Tips of distinguishing 10 different parts • Power of observation

  7. 10 different parts

  8. Separated at Birth but Joined at the Hip Paragraph I: • Barbara Herbert found her lost twins. • Vocabulary and phrase: Plump- (adj.) sufficiently fat so as to have a pleasing fullness of figure. Join at the hip- being together at old age.

  9. The Maury Povichshow • The Maury PovichShow, is a syndicated American talk show hosted by Maury Povich. • Maury has dealt with a variety of issues, including teenage pregnancy, sexual infidelity, uncommon illnesses.

  10. Paragraph II: • Though they didn’t grow up together, Barbara Herbert and her separated twins share lots of concordances. • They join the research held by Thomas J. Bouchard and was thoroughly investigated.

  11. Vocabulary and phrase: Concordance- (n.) identical things. Miscarry- (v.) baby dies while pregnancy. Squeamish- (adj.) easy to feel disgusting. Psychiatrist- (n.) people who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Ophthalmologist- (n.) people who specializes in medical and surgical eye problems. Pathologist- (n.) people who specializes in studying and diagnosis of disease. Dental caries- (n.) teeth are broken by bacteria and cause the toothache. Send a shiver up the spine- trembling with fear; feel scared. Refer to A as B- call A as B. Burst into- a suddenly rise of an emotion.

  12. Paragraph III: • Researchers discovered that many twins share lots of physical and mental similarity. • Genes may be the most influential factor. • Twins show virtually all the identicals posed the same way; while fraternal twins don’t.

  13. Vocabulary and phrase: Thyroid- (n.) an endocrine glands located in neck controls how quickly the body uses energy. Candid- (adj.) take photos secretly. Fraternal- (n.) embryos derived from two separate fertilized eggs.

  14. Paragraph IV & V: • Thomas Bouchard recalled the time he reunited a pair of twins. • Thomas Bouchard is surprised about the rapport between twins. • Vocabulary and phrase: Ramp- (n.) stirs have wheel below and can move. Nanosecond- (n.) 10-9 second; a very short time.

  15. Main idea (A) Separated twins will become more similar than those who are not separated. (B) Thomas Bouchard is a dynamic Midwesterner researcher. (C) Though separated at birth, twins surprisingly share many similarities. (D) Twins will not interrupt each other while talking.

  16. Question and discussion • What makes it different between people with same appearance and twins? • Is all the similarities between twins related to genes? Or there may be other factors? • According to question 2, Why it is so commendable that twins who were separated at birth still share many similarities?

  17. Scientists Create Synthetic Organism Supplementary reading:

  18. Synthetic Organism • What’s your first site?

  19. Create an organism by yourself • Spore !!!

  20. Paragraph 1 ~ 13 (p.31): • Scientists for the first time have created a synthetic cell. • It stir anew nagging questions of ethics, law and public safety. • Many companies are looking forward to this technique would soon be applied to other strains of bacteria with commercial potential.

  21. Vocabulary and phrase: Herald- (v.) to reveal something is coming. Piecemeal- (adj.) on by one. Strain- (n.) species. Play down- devalue; debase.

  22. Paragraph 14 ~ 20 (p.32): • White house will hold a public hearing on this new technology. • Friends of the Earth asking the government to fully regulate all synthetic biology experiments and products. • ETC Group called for a moratorium on synthetic biology. • There was no immediate reaction from Roman Catholic and Protestant groups.

  23. Vocabulary and phrase: Patent- (v.) to get the exclusive rights of one’s own invention. Moratorium- (n.) stop doing something. Divine- (adj.) holy; sacred. Mandate- (n.) an order; a command. Culmination- (n.) pike; the highest part. Interim- (n.) transitional; a temporary pause in a line of event. Consortium- (n.) team working together.

  24. Friend of the Earth International • FOEI call for the conservation movement and seek to address the economic and development aspects of sustainability. • Originally based largely in North America and Europe.

  25. ETC Group • The full legal name is Action Group on Erosion, Technology and Concentration. • The organization has taken a public campaign stance against geoengineering. The most famous one is called "Hands off Mother Earth!”.

  26. Paragraph 21 ~ 27 (p.32): • Scientists replace the genome of bacteria with synthetic one, turning it into a customized variant of second existing species. • They sent the genetic code to the DNA sequencing company, where it was transformed into hundreds of small pieces of DNA. • They use yeast and bacteria to bind small DNA together. • They didn’t give the new organism its own species name, but they give its synthetic genome an official number.

  27. Vocabulary and phrase: Customize- (v.) to make a personal specifications. Meld- (v.) bind together.

  28. Main idea • Environment groups stand against this experiment. • Synthetic organism will destroy the environment, so we should not create any of them. • Create a synthetic multicellular organism is the dream of all scientists. • Scientists create a totally synthetic organism, and raise lots of ethic debates.

  29. Question for discussion • What’s the different between an organism with a synthetic genome and a synthetic organism? • If you have an ability to create an organism what kind of organism will you make? And what feature do you expect it has?

  30. Debate time • Pretend you are a scientist (or a environmental proctor), please provide some opinion to support (or against) the synthetic organism.

  31. Thanks for your listening !!